東善寺HP  幕末史 ●       幕末史 通説の誤り

幕末史 小栗上野介をめぐる
通説 の誤り
The History of the End of the Edo Period:
Errors in common beliefs
about Kozukenosuke Oguri

 人物  People
・ 小栗上野介は德川絶対主義者 …德川の先の日本国を見ていた  ・ Kozukenosuke Oguri was a Tokugawa absolutist... In fact, Oguri was looking beyond Tokugawa to the Japanese nation.
 遣米使節 Mission to the United States 
フィラデルフィアで小判金貨がドル金貨の三倍の価値と認めさせた…ほぼ同等を認めさせた  ・ In Philadelphia, Oguri had Japanese gold coins recognized as three times as valuable as dollar coins … Oguri got the Americans to admit that they were almost equal.
通貨交渉で日米通貨の問題を解決した…解決まで至らず、通貨交渉の直前までで終った  ・ Oguri solved the problem of Japan-U.S. currency in currency negotiations … They never reached a resolution and ended up just before the currency negotiations.
日本は銀の価値が高かった/金貨が安かった/国際価格に比べ三分の一の価値…日本は元禄期から「補助通貨(代用通貨)」を取り入れた先進国だった  ・ The value of silver in Japan was high and gold was cheap.… Japan was an advanced country that adopted "supplementary currency" (substitute currency) from the Genroku period.
 咸臨丸 Kanrin Maru
万延元年遣米使節は咸臨丸で渡米した勝海舟が遣米使節…全て誤解  ・ In the first year of the Man'en Era, the Japanese envoy to the U.S. went to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru. / Kaishu Katsu was an envoy to the United States.... It's all a misunderstanding.
咸臨丸は日本人初の太平洋横断…「軍艦として」初だったが、「日本人として初」ではなかった  ・ Kanrin Maru was the first Japanese ship to cross the Pacific Ocean.... It was the first "Japanese warship" to cross the Pacific, but not "the first Japanese people" to do so.
咸臨丸は日本人だけで航海/外国人の助けは借りなかった…勝海舟も福沢諭吉もハッタリを残した  ・ The Kanrin Maru was sailed by Japanese alone with no help from foreigners.... Both Kaishu Katsu and Yukichi Fukuzawa left a bluff.
咸臨丸に帰国を希望していた米兵を乗せてやった…頼んで乗ってもらった史実を無視して夜郎自大な日本人論に仕立てた ・ They gave rides to American soldiers who wanted to return to Japan on the Kanrin Maru... They made it into a Japanese theory of arrogance and recklessness by ignoring the historical fact that the soldiers were, in fact, asked to come on the ship and help Japanese crew.
勝海舟の提案で派遣された咸臨丸…国定教科書『修身』で大正7年から始まった勝海舟礼賛~勝海舟神話と咸臨丸神話 ・ Kaishu Katsu proposed to dispatch the Kanrin Maru... The national textbook "Shushin" started to praise Kaishu Katsu in 1918 or Taisho 7- the myth of Kaishu Katsu and the myth of the Kanrin Maru 
木村喜毅は副使/副使の乘る船が咸臨丸…咸臨丸の実態が判明した昭和36年以後に出てきた誤り。土井良三『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』(中公新書)が根源か。 ・ Yoshitake Kimura was a deputy envoy / the ship on which the deputy envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru... This is an error that appeared after 1961 ro Showa 36, when the reality of the Kanrin Maru was discovered. It may have originated from Ryozo Doi's "Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura" (Chuko Shinsho).
新見・村垣・小栗ではただの観光旅行になってしまった…徳富蘇峰に始まり勝部真長『勝海舟』に続く遣米使節矮小化論 ・ The mission led by Niimi, Muragaki, and Oguri turned out to be just a sightseeing trip.... The Trivialization of the Mission to the United States, beginning with Soho Tokutomi and continuing with Mitake Katsube's "Kaishu Katsu." 
 対馬事件 Tsushima Incident 
英艦が対馬へ行き、露艦ポサドニクが退去した …劇画のような弱腰の軍艦長がいるだろうか。軍隊組織を知らない論  ・ The British ship went to Tsushima and the Russian ship Posadnik left.... Could there be such a weak-willed military captain as the one in the play? It's an argument from someone who knows nothing about military organization.
小栗上野介は解決できず江戸へ戻った…命令されて対馬へ来ている艦長相手では話にならない ・ Kozukenosuke Oguri could not solve the problem and returned to Edo.Oguri simply thought that he couldn't talk to a captain who stayed in Tsushima under orders.
小栗は対馬藩に移封・知行替えを強要した…上垣外憲一『勝海舟と幕末外交』(中公新書)は論拠不明 ・ Oguri forced the Tsushima clan to relocate and change its territory... "Kaishu Katsu and the diplomacy at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate” by Ken’ichi Kamigaito (Chukon Shinsho) says so, but the basis of the argument is unclear. 
「氷川清話」勝海舟が陰で介入、英オールコック公使に露艦を退去させた…勝海舟の虚説  ・ According to "Hikawa Seiwa," Kaishu Katsu intervened behind the scenes and forced British Minister Allcock to evacuate Russian ships from Tsushima.... a false story by Kaishu Katsu.
横須賀製鉄所 Yokosuka Ironworks 
・フランスに依頼したのは小栗上野介がフランス派だから…消去法で残ったのがフランス  ・ The Shogunate commissioned France to build it because Kozukenosuke Oguri was a Frenchman.... In fact, France was left by process of elimination.
横須賀は幕府海軍増強の軍港だった/秘密の軍事基地…明治中頃までは外国船も修理し、誰でも見学できるテーマパークだった ・ Yokosuka was a military port for the Shogunate's naval buildup / secret military base....It was a theme park where foreign ships were repaired and anyone could visit until the middle of the Meiji era.
横須賀製鉄所はフランスからの借金で建設…借款説の元は『勝海舟語録』と柴山拓自『開国』(小学館)  ・ Yokosuka Ironworks was built on loan from France....The source of the loan theory is "Kaishu Katsu's Analects" and Takuji Shibayama's "The Opening of Japan" (Shogakukan).
       幕 政  Shogunnate Goverment
・濡れ衣 四国・樺太・淡路島を担保にした…まったくの濡れ衣  ・ Oguri used Shikoku, Sakhalin, and Awajishima Island as collateral... A total fabrication.
退職後も武器購入で抗戦準備していた…国立大学名誉教授が西暦と和暦を取り違えて着せた濡れ衣 ・ After retiring, Oguri was still buying weapons and preparing for a war of attrition. A Professor Emeritus of National University framed Oguri by misreading the Japanese calendar and the Western calendar. 
権田村で In Gonda Village
大砲で打ちこわし暴徒を撃退した→権田村での最後の64日間へ  ・ Beating back the mob with cannons → To the last 64 days in Gonda Village
明治政府軍への抵抗拠点づくりで権田村に移住 →権田村での最後の64日間へ
 ・ Oguri moved to Gonda Village to build a base of resistance against the Meiji government forces → To the last 64 days in Gonda Village
After his retirement, Oguri continued to prepare for the war against the Meiji government → He was falsely accused by misreading the Japanese calendar and the Western calendar.
首級が埼玉県大宮・普門院に運ばれた/普門院に墓がある…館林に運ばれた父子の首級・盗掘して取り戻した村人 ・ Oguri's head was taken to Fumonin Temple in Omiya, Saitama Prefecture, where the tomb still stands.... In fact, the heads of Oguri and his son were once brought to Tatebayashi, but Gonda vllagers later recovered them back to the village.
官軍によって処刑された …「官」の反対語は「民」。ところが「官軍」の反対語を「民軍」と言わず「賊軍」にしてしまう日本語(人)。
 ・ Oguri was executed by the government forces.... "The opposite of "government" is "people," but the opposite of "imperical force" is "rebel army" in Japanese. There should be interrogation and trial before "execution," but no interrogation or trial for Oguri. The opposite of "democracy" is "governmentalism," where the boss is always right.