小栗上野介(東善寺HP)                小栗「徳川絶対主義者」は誤り  
 
Kozukenosuke Oguri (Tozenji HP) ● The theory, "Oguri is a Tokugawa absolutist," is wrong



小栗上野介への不当なレッテル
「徳川絶対主義」説は誤り
Unjust label for Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri
The "Tokugawa absolutist" theory is false.


 ●「徳川・幕府絶対主義」は勝海舟の放言から
The "Kozukenosuke Oguri is a Tokugawa Shogunate absolutist" theory began with the ramblings of Kaishu Katsu.

 明治になって生き残った勝海舟が
誠忠無二の徳川武士で、先祖の小栗又一によく似ていたよ。一口にいふと、あれは、三河武士の長所と短所を両方具へて居ったのサ。しかし度量の狭かったのはあの人のためには惜しかった(勝海舟「氷川清話」
と小栗上野介の人物矮小化を図った言葉が、「徳川絶対主義者」説の始まりとなる。 

 経済人小栗上野介を評するに、
会ったこともない260年も前の小栗家先祖によく似ている、などハッタリをきかせた無責任な放言に後世の学者や物書きが惑わされ、安易に乗せられ、単純に「徳川(幕府)絶対主義者」と決めつけているのは、そろそろ改めるべきであろう。

 
It began when Kaisyu Katsu, who survived from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji Restoration, said the following in an attempt to trivialize Kozukenosuke Oguri's character:
"Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri (the twelfth generation head of the Oguri family) was a loyal Tokugawa warrior, much like his ancestor, Tadamasa Mataichi Oguri (the fourth generation head of the Oguri family). In a word, he possessed both the strengths and weaknesses of the Mikawa samurai. However, his narrow-mindedness was a pity for him."
(Kaishu Katsu, "Hikawa Siewa")


In describing the economist Kozukenosuke Oguri, Kaishu Katsu bluffed irresponsibly by saying that Oguri was much like his ancestor, the fourth generation head of the Oguri family, whom Katsu had never met 260 years before. Scholars and writers of later generations have been misled and easily taken in by these statements. It is time to change the assumption that "Oguri = Tokugawa (Shogunate) absolutist."


 小栗忠順は慶応四年一月十三日、十四日の江戸城における大評定に於いて強硬な主戦論を唱えて西軍に抗戦することを主張し、将軍慶喜にその策を容れるよう迫った。その場を退出しようとする慶喜の袴の裾をつかんで迫った、ともいわれ、このことが「小栗は徳川絶対主義者」という説の根拠となったのであろう。

Tadamasa Oguri advocated a hard-line policy of war against the Western forces at the Grand Council of War held at Edo Castle on January 13 and 14, 1871, and urged Shogun Yoshinobu Tokugawa to accept his policy. It is said that Oguri grabbed Yoshinobu by the hem of his hakama as he was leaving the scene, which may have been the basis for the theory that Oguri was a Tokugawa absolutist.

                   

 翌十五日に勘定奉行・兼陸軍奉行など一切の役を罷免されると、小栗は知行地の権田村への帰農土着を図る。

On the following day, January 15, Oguri was dismissed from all of his posts including an Account Magistrate and Military Magistrate, and moved to Gonda Village, a village he had been in charge of, in an attempt to settle down by farming.

 彰義隊の隊長就任を断った小栗忠順
 Tadamasa Oguri refuses to be appointed the captain of the Shogitai


小栗忠順一家が上州権田村へ出立(二月二十八日)する数日前に、将軍警護を目的として彰義隊を編成した渋沢成一郎が小栗忠順を訪ねてくる。小栗に彰義隊の隊長についてほしいとの要請のためであったといわれる。


(注)彰義隊は、幕末期の1868年(慶応4年)、江戸幕府の最後の将軍であった徳川慶喜の警護などを目的として渋沢成一郎らによって結成された部隊。

A few days before Tadamasa Oguri and his family left for Gonda Villate on February 28, Seiichiro Shibusawa, who had organized the Shogitai for the purpose of protecting the Shogun, visited Tadamasa Oguri. It is said that this was to request that Oguri be appointed captain of the Shogitai.

(Note: The Shogitai was formed in 1868 or Keio 4 at the end of the Edo period by Seiichiro Shibusawa and others for the purposes such as protecting Yoshinobu Tokugawa, the last Shogun of the Edo shogunate.)


In response to Shibusawa's request, Oguri declined to join the Shogitai. For more details, please refer to the following:


 【以下原文】

 其都下を去りし前夜振武隊長渋澤成一郎に語りしと云へるは、実に其当日の心事なりき。彼は曰へり

 予固より見る所ありて、当初開戦を唱へたれども、行はれざりき。今や主公恭順し、城池将に他人の有に帰せんとす、人心挫折し、機既に失せり、復た戦ふべからざるなり。仮令会桑諸藩東北諸侯を連衡して官軍に抗するも、大樹已に恭順す、何の名 かこれ有ん。況や烏合の衆をや。数月に出でずして事応に定まるべし。然れども強藩互いに勲功を争ひ、内相軋轢して、遂に  群雄の割拠するに至らば、我々は主公を奉じて檄を天下に伝ふべし。三百年の徳澤施して人に在り。国家の再造難からざる  のみ。我々が今日の計は鋭を養ふて時機を待つに如く莫し。予は是より去て采邑に土着し、農兵を練り、民衆を懐け、以て事  あらば雄飛すべく、天下泰平に帰せば前朝の頑民となりて終らん。
   (塚越芳太郎「読史餘録」民友社)
 
 【現代語訳】

 江戸を去る前夜に振武隊長渋沢成一郎に語ったのは、その当日の心境であった。小栗は以下のように語った。

 自分はもとより考えるところがあって主戦論を唱えたけれど、それは採用されなかった。
 今は将軍慶喜公は恭順し、江戸城も他人のものとなろうとしている。人心は挫折し、戦機はもう無くなっていて、戦うのは無理な状況である。たとえ桑名や会津の東北の諸侯が連盟して官軍に抵抗しても、将軍が既に恭順している以上どういう名義があろうか。まして烏合の衆が集まったところで、〈何になろうか〉。数ヶ月しないうちに平定され落ち着くことだろう。
 しかしながら(その後)強藩が互いに手柄を競い、内部が抗争して遂に群雄割拠のような状況になったら、我々は将軍をいただいて天下に立ちあがるつもりである。(徳川)三百年の恩恵をこれまで人々に施してきたから、国家の再建も難しいことではあるまい。われわれのいまの計画は、鋭気を養って時機をうかがうのがいい。
 自分はこれから江戸を去って知行地(上州権田村)に土着し、農兵を練磨し、民衆と交わり、その力でもし変事があれば立ち上がり、また(このまま)天下泰平にすめば、「前朝の頑民(前政府の頑固な遺臣)」で生涯を終えるつもりである。


On the eve of his departure from Edo, Oguri spoke to Seiichiro Shibusawa, the leader of the Shinbutai group, about his feelings on that day. He said the following:

I had my own ideas and advocated the war against the western forces, but they were not adopted.  

Now, the Shogun Yoshinobu has submitted, and Edo Castle is about to belong to someone else. People's minds were broken, the opportunity for war was gone, and it was impossible to fight. Even if Kuwana, Aizu, and other lords of the Tohoku region joined together to resist the government forces, how could they make a name for themselves if the Shogun had already submitted to them? And even if they did, what would they become when they gathered together? The situation would be settled within a few months.  

However, if (after that) the powerful clans compete with each other for the credit and internal strife finally leads to a situation of rivalry, we intend to take over the Shogun's reign and stand up for Japan. Since we have provided the people with the blessings of the Tokugawa regime for 300 years, it should not be difficult for us to rebuild the nation. Our current plan is to keep our spirits up and wait for the right moment.

I intend to leave Edo and settle in the land of my fief (Gonda village in Jyoshu Province or today's Gunma Prefecture), train the people as a farmer's army, associate with them, and use their strength to rise up in the event of an upheaval, but if I do not have to do so and the country remains in peace, I will end my life as "a stubborn relict of the previous government."


注1、記録者塚越芳太郎は……号:停春、停春楼  烏渕村(高崎市倉渕町岩氷)出身の文筆家。民友社に入り「国民の友」「國民新聞」で働き、「家庭雑誌」刊行で主宰となる。1906年東京市長尾崎行雄に請われ「東京市史稿」編纂の主任となって41年間、現在も続く膨大な史料『東京市史稿』出版の基礎を固めた。小栗上野介顕彰にもその文才を発揮し、貴重な資料を残している。

注2、「前夜訪ねた」 …「小栗日記」には江戸出立の2月末ころに、渋澤成一郎が訪ねた記述はない。小栗の書き落としであろうか。厳密な史料校正をして『東京市史稿』の編纂を始めた塚越芳太郎は確実な史料をもとに書いたのであろうが、今は出典不明である。

注3、「振武隊長」 …副頭取の天野八郎との方針の違いから、渋沢成一郎は頭取でありながら彰義隊を脱して振武隊を編成したのは、ずっとのちの5月頃ことだから、振武隊長は誤りで「後の振武隊長」が正しい。この時はまだ彰義隊は結成されたばかりで頭取も決まっていなかったと思われる。

Note 1. The recorder Yoshitaro Tsukagoshi: Tsukagoshi has pen names of "Teishun" and "Teishunroh." He is from Ubuchi Village (today's Iwakori, Kurabuchi Town, Takasaki City). He joined Min'yusha and worked for "Kokumin no tomo" and "Kokumin shinbun," and became the chairman when "Katei Zasshi" was published. In 1906, he was invited by Yukio Ozaki, the mayor of Tokyo, to become the chief editor of the "Tokyo City History Manuscript" and for 41 years laid the foundation for the publication of the "Tokyo City History Manuscript," a vast collection of historical documents that continues to this day. He also demonstrated his literary talent in honoring Kozukenosuke Oguri, leaving behind valuable materials.

Note 2. "On the eve of his departure from Edo": In the "Oguri Diary," there is no mention of Seiichiro Shibusawa visiting Oguri at the end of February, just before he left Edo. Did Oguri forget to write it in his diary? Yoshitaro Tsukagoshi, who, I believe, compiled the "Tokyo Municipal History Manuscript" after strictly proofreading historical documents, must have written about this incident based on reliable historical documents, but its source is now unknown.

Note 3. "the leader
of the Shinbutai group": Due to differences in policy with Hachiro Amano, who was the vice-leader of the Shogitai group, Seiichiro Shibusawa left the Shogitai, although he was the leader of the group, and formed the Shinbutai much later, around May. Therefore, the term "the leader of the Shinbutai" is incorrect, and "Shibusawa later became the leader of the Shinbutai" is correct. When Shibusawa met Oguri, the Shogitai had just been formed and the head of the Shogitai had probably not yet been decided.

 「徳川絶対主義者」であれば―
  
なぜ彰義隊に加わらなかったか? 
   If Oguri had been a "Tokugawa absolutist," why didn't he join the Shogitai?

 将軍慶喜の前で強硬な主戦論を唱えながら、彰義隊頭取就任を小栗が断ったのは矛盾している、という意見が出そうですが、この時の小栗忠順の考えの背景を確認する必要があります。

Some may argue that it is contradictory for Tadamasa Oguri to refuse the appointment as the head of the Shogitai while advocating a war against the western forces in front of Shogun, Yoshinobu Tokugawa. To consider this point, however, we need to confirm the background of Oguri's thinking at the time.


 
●儒学による理想の統治者は
 
The ideal ruler according to Confucianism is ...


                   
                   ▲安積艮斎
Gonsai Asaka


 小栗忠順は9歳で安積艮斎に入門して儒学を学んでいます。

 その儒学や朱子学では、理想の政治を「鼓腹撃壤・
こふくげきじょう」というスタイルに求めています。政治の理屈はいらない、人々が安心して腹いっぱい食べられ、土を踏んで舞い踊れる世の中にすること、これがよい政治の理想として、それを神話伝説の人物である堯ぎょう・舜しゅん・禹の治世に求めています。
 「王」とは人徳をもって世のまつりごとを務める人物のことで、堯王も舜王も禹王も実在ではないし、更に伝説ではありますが堯も舜も子に跡を継がせていません。人徳が備わった人物が他にいればその者に継がせる、というきわめて合理的な思考をしています。

 小栗忠順は、遣米使節として渡ったアメリカで、「入れ札(選挙)」による大統領制度を見聞し、現に小栗忠順ら遣米使節一行が面会したブキャナン大統領は、一行がアメリカを去った後の秋の大統領選挙で退陣し、第16代大統領にリンカーンが選ばれて就任しています。
 
 帰国後でもこういうアメリカの政治の変化はもちろん承知していたことでしょう。あれほど大きい国が、国民が選んだ人物によって統治されているという事実は、新鮮な感覚で小栗の脳裏に刻まれたに違いありません。

At the age of 9, Tadamasa Oguri was introduced to Confucianism by Gonsai Asakai and studied Confucianism.  

In Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, the ideal of politics is sought in the style of "Kofuku Gekijo" (鼓腹撃壤). That is to say, the ideal of politics is to create a world in which people can eat with peace of mind and dance on the ground, without the need for political logic. As the ideal of good politics, they seek this ideal in the reigns of the mythological and legendary figures of Gyo, Shun, and Woo.  

A "king" is a person who serves the world with virtue, and neither King Gyo nor King Shun nor King Woo really existed, and although they are legends, neither Gyo nor Shun were succeeded by their children. They were very rational in thinking that if there was someone else with virtue, he or she would succeed them.  

Tadamasa Oguri had heard about the presidential system based on the "irefuda (election)" in the U.S. when he visited the U.S. as an envoy to the United States. In fact, President Buchanan, whom Tadamasa Oguri and his delegation met with, resigned in the presidential election held in the fall after the delegation left the U.S., and Abraham Lincoln was elected and inaugurated as the 16th president.    

Even after returning to Japan, Oguri was of course aware of these changes in American politics. The fact that such a large country was ruled by a man elected by the people must have been fresh in Oguri's mind.

 幕府の先の日本を見ていた小栗忠順
■ Tadamasa Oguri foresaw Japan beyond the Shogunate
 
 小栗忠順はいずれ幕府政治の時代は終わる、と予見していた。政権がどうなっても常に日本の国のあり方を模索し続け、そのために今手がけられることに全力を尽くすことが「真の武士」、と心得ていた。


Tadamasa Oguri foresaw that the era of shogunate politics would eventually come to an end. He knew that no matter what happened to the government, he would always continue to search for a way for Japan to be a respectable nation, and he knew that a "true samurai" would do everything he could to achieve this goal.

  
 
●幕府の退陣を予見していた・・・「幕府の運命、日本の運命」
 
Oguri foresaw the fall of the Shogunate ... "The fate of the Shogunate, the fate of Japan"


 この儒学とアメリカでの見聞を踏まえると、横須賀製鉄所建設の是非が論議されているとき(明治維新の4,5年前)に、小栗上野介が次のように語ったことが納得できます。

Based on this Confucian study and his observations in the U.S., it makes sense that when the pros and cons of building the Yokosuka Ironworks were being debated (four or five years before the Meiji Restoration), Kozukenosuke Oguri said the following:

 ◯幕末にある幕臣が
「幕府の運命もなかなかむつかしい。費用をかけて造船所を造ってもそれが出来上がる時分には幕府はどうなっているかわからない」
と言ったのに対して、

小栗上野介は様子を改め
 「
幕府の運命に限りがあろうとも、日本の運命には限りがない。私は幕府の臣であるから幕府のためにつくす身分ではあるけれども、結局日本の為であって、幕府のしたことが長く日本のためとなって徳川のした仕事が成功したのだと後に言われれば、徳川家の名誉ではないか。国の利益ではないか。同じ売り据え(売家)にしても土蔵付売据の方がよい。あとは野となれ山となれと言って退散するのはよろしくない」  (島田三郎「懐舊談」・『同方会報告』明治28年6月・第1号・17P/のち1977昭和52年立体社より復刻)

と語っている。

At the end of the Edo period, a shogunate official said, "It is difficult to predict the fate of the Shogunate. We do not know what will happen to the Shogunate when the shipyard is completed, even if they are built at great expense."

In response, Kozukenosuke Oguri changed his attitude and said the following:
"
The fate of the Shogunate may be limited, but the fate of Japan is not. I am a vassal of the shogunate, so I am bound to serve the shogunate, but in the end, it is for the sake of Japan, and if it is said later that what the shogunate did was for the sake of Japan for a long time and that the Tokugawa's work was successful, isn't it the honor of the Tokugawa family? Isn't that a national interest? Even if it is the same house for sale, it is better to have a house for sale with a storehouse. It is not good to say, 'I don't care what happens afterwards,' and then leave." 

(Saburo Shimada's "Kaikyudan" in "Dohokai Hokoku," June 1895 or Meiji 28, No. 1, 17 pages, reprinted by Rittaisha in 1977 or Showa 52)


                        

 
▲栗本鋤雲像(東善寺境内)
Statue of Joun Kurimoto (in Tozenji Temple precincts)


 ◯同じような趣旨で栗本鋤雲にも
横須賀造船所が出来上がれば、いずれ土蔵付売家の栄誉が残せる」  と云って笑っています。(栗本鋤雲「匏庵遺稿」)
                         
 ちなみに
 「土蔵付売家」は江戸っ子のシャレで、「将来の国のために」などと正面から大演説するのは大げさでみっともないと避けるのが江戸っ子です。「徳川絶対主義者」という単純な色眼鏡を通したら、この言葉を理解できなくなります。

Oguri also said to Joun Kurimoto to the same effect with a smile as follows: "If the Yokosuka shipyard is completed, the honor of a house for sale with a storehouse will eventually be left behind." (Joun Kurimoto's "Hoan’s Posthumous Essay").

Incidentally, "dozo-tsuki uriya (a house for sale with a storehouse)" is an Edo-style pun that avoids making a big speech about "the future of the nation" in front of other people, as it would be over the top and disgraceful. If you think in terms of a simple preconceived notion of "Tokugawa absolutists," you will fail to understand these words.



 
●親が重態でも最後まで薬はあげたい…主戦論は最後の「薬」
 
Even if a parent is critically ill, we want to give them medicine until the end... Advocating a war is the last "medicine".

 同じ意味で小栗はこうも語っています

 「
親の病気が重くてもう治る見込みがないからといって、薬を与えないのは孝行ではない。たとえ国が滅びても、この身が倒れるまで公事に尽くすのが真の武士である」(福地源一郎「幕末政治家」)

 親とは徳川家
の意味であり、小栗が意味したのは、「自分は旗本として代々その親のもとで暮らしてきた。たしかにこの親の所帯回しは仕組みが古く、もう重態だ。先は短い。あの主戦論は、恭順の意を示している主君を撃つと進んでくる理不尽な西軍に対して、家臣として進める最後のだ」ということだろう。

 残念なことに水戸学で育てられた慶喜はニセモノの錦の旗でも、「天皇」「朝廷」と名がつけばいっさい手を出せないから、「薬」を飲もうとしない。

In the same sense, Oguri also stated:
"It is not filial piety not to give medicine to a parent just because he or she is seriously ill and there is no hope of recovery. Even if the country is falling, a true samurai serves the public until his own body collapses.
(Genichiro Fukuchi, "The Political Figures at the End of the Edo Period")  

The "parent" means the Tokugawa family, and Oguri probably meant, "We have lived under our parents as hatamoto for generations. It is true that the system of running this parent's household is old, and it is already in a serious condition. The future is short. Advocating a war is the last 'medicine' that I can advance as a vassal against the unreasonable Western forces, which are willing to shoot my lord, who has shown his reverence."

Unfortunately, Yoshinobu Tokugawa, who was raised in Mitogaku, would not take the "medicine" because he could not touch anything with the name of "Emperor" or "Imperial Court," even if it is a fake brocade banner.



 
●「則ち是を逃(さ)く」
  "You must leave."

 儒学に「三たび諫
(いさ)めて是を容れざれば、則(すなわ)ち之を逃(さ)く」(「礼記」)として、 「(臣下が)三回忠言を重ねても、主君が聴き入れない時は、家臣はその元を去る」  とあり、家臣が主君を見限るのをよしとしています。その場合辞職ですから無給も覚悟しなければなりません。

 小栗上野介の場合は罷免までされていますから、我がこと終われりという心境でしょう。
 これまでやるべきことはやった、迷うことはない「之を逃く」、ということで上州権田村への「土着帰農願」を幕府に提出します。そのとき、旗本職も辞職し本当に一介の農民になるつもりで「上知(知行地の返上)」も申し出ています。それに対して幕府から「土着は勝手たるべし。上知の儀はそれには及ばず」との返事を得て移住の準備を進めます。

Confucianism states in "Reiki," "If the lord does not accept your admonition three times, then you must leave," which means, "If a vassal refuses to listen to your advice even after you have given it three times, then you must leave." In such a case, the vassal must be prepared to resign without pay.  

In the case of Kozukenosuke Oguri, he was even dismissed from his post, so he must have felt that his role was over. He submitted an application to the shogunate to move to Gonda Village in Jyoshu Province, thinking, "I have done what I should have done so far, and there is no need for me to hesitate." At that time, he also offered to resign his Hatamoto position to become a farmer and return his land to the shogunate. In response, the Shogunate said, "You are free to settle in the area and you would not be required to return the land to the shogunate," so he proceeded to make preparations for moving to Gonda Village.

 ●お茶と生糸
  Tea and Raw Silk

 旗本が知行地を返上してどうして暮そうというのか、これが謎でしたが、小栗上野介が住もうとして屋敷の建設を進めた権田村の観音山に残るお茶の木がその答えを示しています。
 当時、幕末から始まった海外貿易で日本からの輸出品の主役は長い間お茶と生糸でした。上州は名だたる生糸の産地ですからすぐに生産に取り掛かれる。お茶の苗を運べばお茶の生産は出来る、という計画と思われます。

 このお茶の苗木は江戸から早くに運ばれ、植えられたもので、観音山の他に名主佐藤藤七の屋敷跡と仮住まいした東善寺境内に残っています。
 
*東善寺境内のお茶の木…以前石垣の中段に何株も植えてありました。戦後、中段をミョウガ畑にするということで除去してしまい、いま名残の株が先年伐採した桜の根元にヤブ状で見られます。

It was a mystery why a Hatamoto would give up his land to live in Gonda Village. The answer to this question can be found in the tea trees that remain on Kannonyama in Gonda Village, where Kozukenosuke Oguri was planning to build a residence.  

At that time, tea and raw silk had long been the main exports from Japan in the overseas trade that began at the end of the Edo period. Since Jyoshu Province was a famous raw silk production area, production could be started immediately. The plan seems to have been that if tea seedlings were brought to Gonda Village, tea production would be possible.

The tea saplings at Kannonyama were brought and planted early from Edo. Besides Kannonyama, they remain at the site of the residence of Toshichi Sato, the village master of Gonda Village at the time, and at the Tozenji temple* where Oguri lived temporarily.

* Tea trees in Tozenji Temple: There used to be a number of tea plants planted in the middle section of the stone wall behind the main temple. After the WWII, they were removed to make way for a myoga ginger field, and the remnants can now be seen in a thicket at the base of the cherry tree that was cut down a few years ago.

【関連ページ】
15代アメリカ大統領ブキャナン
小栗上野介の言葉「幕府の運命、日本の運命」
小栗上野介の言葉「親の病気…真の武士」
「土蔵付売家」の横須賀造船所
安積艮斎…小栗上野介の師・商船隊による海外貿易を早くに説いた儒者
Related Pages
Mission to the United States, A Journey Around the World
Words of Kozukenosuke Oguri: "Fate of the Shogunate, Fate of Japan"
Words of Kozukenosuke Oguri: "A true samurai"
Yokosuka Shipyard "House for sale with a storehouse"
Gonsai Asaka
: Master of Kozukenosuke Oguri and confucianist who early preached overseas trade by merchant fleet.