小栗上野介随想 (東善寺)     咸臨丸病の日本人   事例集
Essays on Kozukenosuke Oguri (Tozenji Temple) Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease - Case Studies

「咸臨丸病の日本人」事例集 目次 
Japanese people with "the Kanrin Maru disease"
Case Studies Contents


◆クリックすると"咸臨丸病の病状"が見られます。
◆ネットなどで訂正の要請をできないものを掲示しています。
◆ネットなどで訂正された制作者はご連絡ください。当ページから削除し失礼をお詫びします。

Click the links to see "the symptoms of the Kanrin Maru disease."
◆ We have posted what we cannot request corrections through the Internet.
◆ Please contact us if you have made corrections on the Internet or elsewhere. We will remove the link from this page and apologize for any inconvenience.

戦国ヒストリー
日本の洋服史 History of Japanese Clothing
雑誌 LA MER
Magazine "LA MER"
関西蔵前午餐会 Kansai Kuramae Luncheon Association
合田一道「LA MER]
"LA MER" by Ichido Goda

三田評論
Mita Critique
ギャラリー解説
Gallery Commentary 
在ニューヨーク日本総領事館
Consulate-General of Japan in New York 
人物事典「幕末維新風雲伝」
Persons Encyclopedia "Bakumatsu Ishin Fuun Den"

『日本全史』講談社
"Nihon Zenshi" Kodansha
「歴史街道」磯田道史
Michifumi Isoda, "Rekishi Kaido" 
Hitopedia Hitopedia

ネット「江戸散策」
"Edo Sansaku (Edo Stroll)" on the Internet
英語版ウィキペディア「咸臨丸」
Wikipedia "Kanrin Maru"
ウィキペディアの「アイスクリン」 Wikipedia "Ice Crin"
NHK 大河ドラマ「いだてん」 NHK Taiga Drama "Idaten"
NHK「美の壺」 咸臨丸の虚構 NHK "Bi-no Tsubo" Fictions of Kanrin Maru


山川出版「日本史図録」 Yamakawa Shuppan "Nihonshi Zuroku"
山川出版「秘蔵古写真 幕末」 Yamakawa Shuppansha "Hizo Koshashin in bakumatsu (Secret old photographs of the End of the Edo Period)"
山川出版「レンズが撮らえた幕末維新」
Yamakawa Shuppan "Lens ga Toraeta Bakumatsu-Ishin (Japan at the End of Edo Period and the Meiji Restoration Era as Captured by the Lens)"

東京新聞は Tokyo Shinbun
毎日新聞 Mainichi Shinbun
小学館「日本大百科全書」 Shogakukan "Nihon Daihyakka Zensho"
週刊「再現日本史」 Weekly "Saigem Nihonshi"
産経新聞
Sankei Shinbun

松浦玲「勝海舟」 Rei Matsuura "Kaishu Katsu"
半藤一利「幕末史」
Kazutoshi Hando, "Bakumatsu-Shi (History at the End of the Edo Period)"
記念切手
Commemorative postage stamp
霊山歴史館
Reizan Historical Museum

国立公文書館の展示
Exhibits at the National Archives of Japan
木村喜毅は副使説 The theory of "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy"
土井良三「軍艦奉行木村摂津守」 Ryozo Doi, "Gunkan Bogyo Settsukami Kimura"
宗像義樹「咸臨丸の絆」
Yoshiki Munakata, "Kanrin Maru no Kizuna (The Bonds of the Kanrin Maru)"

【参考】PDF版『会津人群像』36号 歴史を誤らせる勝海舟神話咸臨丸神話 (村上泰賢)
 
[Reference] PDF version "Aizujin Gunzo" No.36 "The Myths of Kaishu Katsumi Kaishu and Kanrin Maru, which mislead history" (Taiken Murakami)


 ◆揚げ足取りではありません。歴史の眼を曇らせる咸臨丸病の治癒が目的です。
咸臨丸病の日本人

咸臨丸の虚構・戦前の「修身教科書」が根源  目次に戻る

◆ This is not a carping criticism. The purpose of this page is to cure the Kanrin Maru disease that clouds the eyes of people about the history.
Japanese people with Kanrin Maru disease
The fiction of "KANRIN MARU" and prewar "Shushin" textbooks are the roots of the disease.    Back to the Table of Contents

咸臨丸の虚構三つ Three Fictions about the Kanrin Maru

虚構1.「日本人初の太平洋横断」


 じつは勝海舟は「軍艦として」を前につけて「日本人初の太平洋横断」と書いている。つまり軍艦以外でなら別に日本人初の太平洋横断した人たちがいることを承知している。

 それは、慶長15年(1610)に徳川家康がウィリアム・アダムス(三浦案針)に建造させた帆船で田中勝介が太平洋を横断してメキシコへ渡り、翌慶長16年(1611)に帰国している。この3年後に伊達政宗が派遣したのが、支倉常長。やはり太平洋を横断してメキシコへ渡り―スペインへ渡り―ローマ法王に面謁して、ふたたび太平洋を渡って、5年がかりで帰国している。

 たぶん勝海舟はこの歴史を知っているからわざわざ「軍艦として」と断りを入れたのだろう。いずれあとでこんな断りはすっ飛ばして「日本人初の太平洋横断」だけが使われると計算していたとしたら、これはもう確信犯!

虚構2.「日本人だけで航海した」

 咸臨丸には幕府から頼まれて乗っていたアメリカ人船長ジョン・マーサー・ブルック他10名の船員が、船酔いで動けない勝海舟以下の日本人に代わって嵐の海をほとんど乗り切ってくれた。


虚構3.「木村摂津守喜毅は副使」「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」

 近年「木村摂津守喜毅は遣米使節三使が事故のときの代理だから副使と同格」説
「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」説   が出回っています。いずれも誤りです。

 ほとんどの日本人は幕末の歴史や、遣米使節団を語るとき、なんでも勝海舟と咸臨丸を登場させ、活躍させなければ気がすまなくなっている。なぜそうなったかを知りたい人は下記の「咸臨丸神話は修身教科書から始まった」をご覧ください。


Fiction 1: "The first Japanese crossing of the Pacific Ocean"

Kaishu Katsu wrote "the first Japanese to cross the Pacific Ocean" with "on a warship." In other words, he knew that there had been Japanese people to cross the Pacific Ocean other than on a warship.

In 1610, Shosuke Tanaka crossed the Pacific Ocean to Mexico on a sailing ship that Ieyasu Tokugawa had William Adams (Anjin Miura) build, and returned to Japan in 1611. Three years later, Masamune Date dispatched Tsunenaga Hasekura overseas. Hasekura also crossed the Pacific Ocean to Mexico, then to Spain, had an audience with the Pope, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean again, and took five years to return home.  

Perhaps Katsu Kaishu knew this history, which is why he dared to include the phrase, "on a warship." If he had calculated that people would eventually skip over this clause and just use "the first Japanese to cross the Pacific Ocean" later, then he was already convinced!

Fiction 2: "The Japanese alone maneuvered the ship."

American captain John Mercer Brooke and ten other American sailors, who were asked by the Shogunate to board the Kanrin Maru, made it through the stormy seas in place of the Japanese, including Kaishu Katsu, who was seasick and unable to work.

Fiction 3: "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a vice-envoy" and "the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru"

In recent years, the theories that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura would have been a vice envoy in case any of the three envoys to the U.S. had an accident, so he was the same rank as a vice-envoy," and, "the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru," have been circulating. Both of these theories are false.

When discussing the history of the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the Japanese mission to the U.S., most Japanese feel uncomfortable unless they can make Kaishu Katsu and Kanrin Maru play active roles in everything. If you want to know why this is so, please see "The Kanrin Maru Myth created by Shushin Textbooks" below.

      
【参  考】
 ◆
遣米使節の行程
 ◆
「咸臨丸神話」修身教科書から始まった…国定教科書の「歴史」でなく「修身」教科書で教えた勝海舟・咸臨丸の誇張が、戦後の教科書 (しかも戦後は歴史教科書!) に引き継がれ咸臨丸病の日本人を生み出している!
 ◆「副使は木村摂津守喜毅」「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」説は誤り

咸臨丸の絵を教科書からはずす会

[Reference]

The itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the U.S.

The Kanrin Maru myth created by Shushin textbooks: The exaggeration of "Kaishu Katsu" and "Kanrin Maru" taught in "Shushin" textbooks instead of "History" textbooks, which were the national textbooks, has been carried over to postwar textbooks (and postwar history textbooks!), creating "Kanrin Maru Disease" among the Japanese people!  

◆ The theories that "the vice-envoy was Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura" and "the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin-Maru" are false.

Association for Removing the Kanrin Maru from School Textbooks


 咸臨丸病を増幅させている
    サンフランシスコの石碑
目次に戻る

Stone monument in San Francisco amplifying the Kanrin Maru Disease
Back to the Table of Contents
 
「咸臨丸 入港百年 記念碑
               大阪市長 中井光次 書 」
 

Centennial Memorial of the arrival of the "KANRIN MARU" to the port of San Fransisco
      The Calligraphy Written by Mitsuji Nakai, Mayor of Osaka

  
◆裏面には
日米修好通商百年記念行事として両国の親善促進のために大阪市がこの碑を建て姉妹都市サンフランシスコ市に贈る」  と英語と日本語で刻まれている。

 1961昭和昭和36年に当時の大阪市長中井光次が入港百年を記念して姉妹都市サンフランシスコに贈った石碑が足元に太平洋の荒波を眺め、遠くゴルデンゲートブリッジを望む松林の丘に建てられている。日本人向けの観光バスが必ず立ち寄る石碑となっている。咸臨丸がここに入港しているのは確かだが、本当の遣米使節に触れないこの碑文で、また「遣米使節勝海舟が咸臨丸で渡米した」という誤解をする人を増やし続けていることだろう。

The reverse side of the monument is inscribed in English and Japanese as follows: "In commemoration of the Centennial of Japan-U.S. Amity and Commerce, the City of Osaka erected this monument and presented it to our sister city, San Francisco, to promote goodwill between our two countries."

In 1961 (Showa 36), the stone monument presented by then Osaka Mayor Mitsuji Nakai to the sister city of San Francisco to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the arrival of the Kanrin Maru to the port stands on a hill in the pine forest with a view of the rough waves of the Pacific Ocean at its feet and the Goldengate Bridge in the distance. The monument is a must-see stop for Japanese tourists who come here by sightseeing bus. Although it is certain that the Kanrin Maru entered port here, this inscription, which does not mention the real envoy to the U.S., will continue to increase the number of people who misunderstand that "the envoy to the U.S., Kaishu Katsu, came to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru."


  大坂市様へ   
提案 
 韓国の慰安婦像設置をサンフランシスコ市が受け入れたことに反発した大阪市は、2018平成30年10月に姉妹都市解消を告げました。ついでに遣米使節への誤解を増幅しているこの石碑も撤去してはどうでしょう。

Dear City of Osaka,

I have a proposal. Osaka City, in reaction to San Francisco's acceptance of the installation of a Korean comfort women statue, announced the dissolution of its sister city relationship in October 2018. In addition, why don't you remove this monument that is amplifying the misunderstanding of the Japanese envoy to the U.S.?

   咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
戦国ヒストリー
幕末の思想をわかりやすく解説!尊王攘夷論、佐幕論から倒幕論まで
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Sengoku (Civil War Era) History
Ideologies at the end of the shogunate explained in an easy-to-understand way from the theory of Sonno Joi (revere the emperor and expel the foreigners), the theory of Sabaku (support the shogunate) and the theory of Tobaku (overthrow the shogunate)

  
幕末の思想をわかりやすく解説!尊王攘夷論、佐幕論から倒幕論まで   →開国論・ペリーの画像の下に
Ideologies at the end of the shogunate explained in an easy-to-understand way from the Sonno-Joi theory, the Sabaku theory to the Tobaku theory → The following text appears below Matthew C. Perry's image in the "Kaikoku-ron (The theory of opening Japan)" section. 
****************************************************************************************************
開国派の要人として著名なのが勝海舟です。勝は安政7(1860)年に渡米。サンフランシスコに入港して日米修好通商条約の批准に随行しています。

One of the most prominent key figures of the open-door policy was Kaishu Katsu. Katsu went to the United States in 1860. He arrived in San Francisco and accompanied the ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the United States.

****************************************************************************************************
1,誰に「随行し」たのかが抜けている。勝海舟・咸臨丸で遣米使節を隠す典型例。無意識にそうなったにせよ・・・それが問題
2,「日米修好通商条約の批准」はワシントンで行なった。サンフランシスコから帰った「護衛艦という名目の練習航海」船咸臨丸に乗っていた勝海舟はサンフランシスコから帰国したので、ワシントンには行っていない。

1. It is missing who Katsu Kaishu "accompanied." This is a typical example of hiding the envoys to the U.S. behind Katsu Kaishu/Kanrin Maru. Even if the host of the Web site did so unintentionally, that is the problem.
2. "Ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan" was done in Washington D.C. Kaisyu Katsu, who was on board the Kanrin Maru on a "training voyage under the guise of a convoy," returned to Japan from San Francisco, so he did not go to Washington.

  咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
Le Parisien (日本語版)
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Le Parisien (Japanese version)

「幕府海軍」という項目で、ウィキぺディアを出典としているが
****************************************
「咸臨丸」も副使・木村摂津守・・・
******************************
と、ウィキペディアでは「木村摂津守を副使」としている。

In the section titled "Bakufu Kaigun (Shogunate Navy)," they wrote the following by citing Wikipedia as its source.
****************************************
Settsunokami Kimura, the vice envoy, on board the Kanrin Maru...
******************************
Wikipedia refers to "Settsunokami Kimura as the vice envoy," which was not true.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
三田評論on line
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Mita Hyoron on line (hyoron = critique)

木村芥舟(木村喜毅)  2021年12月27日記事
******************************
副使であった木村は・・・
*****************************


They wrote about Yoshitake Kaishu Kimura in an article on December 27, 2021, as follows:
******************************
Kimura, who was a vice emvoy ...
*****************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
日本海事広報協会機関誌「LA MER」 2010年11月-12月号
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
LA MER, the journal of the Japan Maritime Public Relations Association (November-December 2010)

◯  ノンフィクション作家・合田一道 「咸臨丸、荒波の太平洋を往く」 
*********************************
副使木村摂津守喜毅を司令官に…
・…水野忠徳が「…正使に支障が起こった場合、代わり得る
副使を乗せる船とする」と語った
********************************
との記述を咸臨丸子孫の会HPで引用紹介している。

◯合田氏はアーバンライフメトロ(2021年11月)ページでも同様の記述をしている。
◯合田氏はがんばれ北海道連載でも同様の記述をしている。

"Kanrin Maru Voyaging through the Rough Seas of the Pacific Ocean" by Ichido Goda
, nonfiction writer
*********************************
Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura, the vice envoy, was appointed as the commander-in-chief...
Tadanori Mizuno said, "... in the event of trouble with the official envoy, the ship will be used to carry the vice envoy who can take his place."
********************************

The author quated the above description on the website of the Society of the Kanrin-maru Crew Descendants, but this is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

◯ The author made the same statement in a page of "Urban Life Metro" (November 2021 issue).
◯ The author also wrote a similar article in the "Ganbare Hokkaido" series.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
「柿生文化」
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Kakio Bunka (Kakio Culture)

「柿生文化」78号 平成26年

****************************************
その護衛の名目で
木村喜毅を副使とする咸臨丸も・・・
****************************************
と記述。


Kakio Bunka, No. 78, 2014 Heisei 26
****************************************
... and the Kanrin Maru with Yoshitake Kimura as the vice envoy in the name of escorting ...
****************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
ブログ:讃岐徒然散歩
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Blog: Sanuki Tsurezure Sampo (Idle Walk)

讃岐の幕末60 「奉使米利堅紀行」

****************************************
「木村」は「咸臨丸」の司令官として”
遣米副使”を命じられ、
****************************************

Sanuki no Bakumatsu 60 "Hoshi America Kiko (The Journal of an envoy to the U.S.)"

****************************************
Kimura, the commander of the Kanrin Maru, was ordered to be "the vice envoy to the U.S."
****************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
ネット:社会歴史研究同好会
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Society History Research Club

日米修好通商条約
******************************************
その護衛の名目で
木村喜毅を副使として咸臨丸も派遣された。
******************************************

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan
******************************************
Under the guise of escorting them, the Kanrin Maru was also dispatched with Yoshitake Kimura as vice envoy.
******************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

 
 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
ネット:老楼快悔
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Rohroh Kaikai

第20話 咸臨丸とチューリップ
*****************************************

 日米修好通商条約締結のための随行船として、
副使木村摂津守・・・
************************************************

Episode 20: The Kanrin Maru and the Tulip
****************************************
With Settsumori Kimura, the vice envoy, on board, ... as an escort ship for the conclusion of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the United States.
*****************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.


咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ニコニコ大百科「木村喜毅」
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
The Nikoniko Encyclopedia "Yoshitake Kimura" 

ニコニコ大百科「木村喜毅」
*****************************************
見出しが 遣米使節副使  となっていて
・・・
11月木村に対して遣米使節副使として渡海することが命じられた。
*****************************************

The Nikoniko Encyclopedia "Yoshitake Kimura"
 
*****************************************
The headline reads, "vice envoy to the U.S." and ...
... the order was given to Kimura to travel to the U.S. in November as the vice envoy
*****************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ネット:日本の洋服史
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: History of Japanese Clothing

5咸臨丸と日本の洋服
************************************
「 
副使・木村摂津守、  となっている
************************************

5 Kanrin Maru and Japanese Clothing
************************************
... Settsunokami Kimura, the vice envoy...
************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集 
ネット: やまなし学研究 これまでの講座から
Japanese with Hanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Yamanashi-gaku Kenkyu: From Past Lectures


近藤喜則という人

近藤喜則(1932-1901)は南巨摩郡の睦合村(現南部町)出身。・・・・・・・・市川大門出身の、西洋医術の広瀬元恭(京都蘭学塾・時習堂)、市川代官所御殿医で、咸臨丸でアメリカに渡った広瀬保庵から影響を受けている。

******************************************

 史実:
広瀬保庵はアメリカ軍艦ポウハタン号で遣米使節の従者としてアメリカに渡っている

Yoshinori Kondo

Yoshinori Kondo (1932-1901) was born in Mutsuai Village (now Nanbu Town), Minamikoma County (Yamanashi Prefecture). He was influenced by Genkyo Hirose (Kyoto Rangaku Juku, Jishudo), a Western medical doctor, and Hoan Hirose, a doctor at the Ichikawa Daikanjo palace, who traveled to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru. ・・・・・・・・
******************************************  

This is not correct, because Hoan Hirose traveled to the U.S. as a follower of an envoy on the USS Powhatan, but not on the Kanrin Maru.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ネット:雑誌「LA MER」 2010.11.12
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Magazine "LA MER" 2010.11.12

合田一道「咸臨丸、荒波の太平洋を往く」 で タイトル前の見出し文に(PDF)
**********************************
咸臨丸が日米修好通商条約批准の随伴船として、
副使木村摂津守喜毅を司令官として・・・
**********************************

“Kanrin Maru Voyaging through the Rough Seas of the Pacific Ocean” by Ichido Goda: In the headline text before the title, the following is written:(PDF)
**********************************
The Kanrin Maru accompanied (USS Powhatan with the Japanese delegation on board for) the ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the U.S., with Settsunokami Yositake Kimura, the vice envoy, as commander in chief....
**********************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ネット:がんばれ北海道
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Ganbare Hokkaido

合田一道「がんばれ北海道」

******************************************
幕府の遣米使節の随伴船として副使・木村摂津守を乗せ、 
******************************************

Ichido Goda wrote the following for "Ganbare Hokkaido":
******************************************
The ship accompanied the Shogunate's envoy to the U.S., carrying Settsunokami Kimura, the vice envoy, on board...
******************************************


This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.
咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集 
PDF:咸臨丸太平洋横断150年記念 咸臨丸子孫の会
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
PDF: Kanrin Maru 150th Anniversary of the Trans-Pacific Ocean Crossing
Society of the Kanrin-maru Crew Descendants

合田一道「咸臨丸、荒波の太平洋をゆく」 

***************************************
副使には長崎海軍伝習所二代所長を務めた木村図書(後に摂津守)、
***************************************

“Kanrin Maru Voyaging through the Rough Seas of the Pacific Ocean” by Ichido Goda
***************************************
The vice envoy was Zusho
Kimura (later Settsunokami Kimura), who served as the second director of the Nagasaki Naval Academy.
***************************************


This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ネット:関西蔵前午餐会
Japanese with Hanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Kansai Kuramae Luncheon Club

咸臨丸始末 田村洋一

****************************************
 
木村摂津守が副使として随伴船に乗船することになる。
****************************************

"Kanrin Maru Shimatsu" by Yoichi Tamura

****************************************
Settsunokami Kimura will be aboard the accompanying ship as a vice envoy.
****************************************

This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 ネット:ギャラリー解説 
Japanese with Hanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Gallery Description

 
芥舟木村喜毅・草書八字で
**************************************
軍艦奉行・咸臨丸司令官となり、
遣米副使に任ぜられて渡米し…
**************************************

Yoshitake Kaishu Kimura, in cursive eight-character script
**************************************
Kimura became a warship magistrate and the commander of the Kanrin Maru, and went to the U.S. as the vice envoy to the U.S...
**************************************
This is not correct because Kimura was not a vice envoy.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集 
ネット:JAPAN NYC 在ニューヨーク日本国総領事館 
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Consulate-General of Japan in New York

JAPAN-NYC 1860-2010 「初の遣米使節団」
 で
************************************
1860年1月に米国政府が提供した巡洋艦ポーハタン号に乗り込んだサムライ使節団は、初めて日本人が操船する
咸臨丸の護衛の下、・・・・・・サンフランシスコに到着しました。
**************************************************
「咸臨丸の護衛の下」 → ポウハタン号より3日前に出発し、両船は途中一度も太平洋上で逢うことがなかったのに、「護衛の下」とするのは誇張が過ぎる。もともと「護衛船という名目の練習航海」でした。
もう一つの理由が「対等の立場の外交であることを見せるため、日本人だってこれくらいのことはやれる」ということを見せつけたかった。
 でも実際は同乗していたブルック大尉以下の米人水兵が嵐の中をほとんど乗り切ってくれたのが実態。

JAPAN-NYC 1860-2010 "The First Japanese Mission to the U.S."
************************************
In January 1860, the Samurai Mission aboard the U.S. government-provided cruiser Powhatan arrived in San Francisco under the escort of the Kanrin Maru, the first Japanese-operated ship of its kind. ・・・・・・
**************************************************

"Under the escort" is too much of an exaggeration, since the Kanrin Maru departed from Japan three days before the Powhatan and the two ships never met in the Pacific Ocean during the voyage. Besides, the voyage of Kanrin Maru was originally planned as a "training voyage under the guise of an escort vessel."

They also wanted to show that "even the Japanese can do this much, to show that we are on equal footing in diplomacy." In reality, however, Captain John Mercer Brooke and the American sailors who were on board with them, made it through most of the storm.
 

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
ネット:人物事典「幕末維新風雲伝」   目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study  
Jinbutsu Jiten "Bakumatsu Ishin Fuun Den"  Back to the Table of Contents

 
勝海舟
************************************
1860年には、日米修好通商条約の批准書交換のため、遣米使節となり
************************************
と勝海舟を「遣米使節」にしている。

Kaisyu Katsu
************************************
In 1860, he became an envoy to the United States to exchange ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the United States.
************************************

Thus, they wrote Kaishu Katsu as "envoy to the U.S.," which was not true.

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
歴史解説書 『日本全史』 講談社1991年~   目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Historical commentary book "Nippon Zenshi (Complete History of Japan)" Kodansha 1991-
                              Back to the Table of Contents

タイトルが咸臨丸、太平洋横断へ出帆 日本人の手で初めて」
******************************
大きな画像はブロウドウェーをパレードしてメトロポリタンホテルに到着した遣米使節一行の新聞挿絵。でもその下には、波にもまれる「咸臨丸」が載っている。
****************************
これでまた「咸臨丸で」渡米した遣米使節一行という誤解が広まることだろう。

The title is "Kanrin Maru Sets Sail for Pacific Ocean Crossing, First Time by Japanese"
******************************
The large image is a newspaper illustration of the envoys parading down the Broadway and arriving at the Metropolitan Hotel in New York.
However, the ship shown below it is the "Kanrin Maru" being caught in the waves
****************************  
This will again spread the misconception that the envoys went to the U.S. "on the Kanrin Maru."



咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 月刊『歴史街道』2021令和3年10月号  目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Monthly "Rekishi Kaido" October 2021 (Reiwa 3)    Back to the Table of Contents

特集1 徳川幕府崩壊・男たちの選択 のうち
 磯田道史「近代国家への道 旧幕臣たちが果たした役割とは」14p~ で

 
************************************
・・・
咸臨丸で渡米した遣米使節団、  19p 中段6行目
************************************

Special Feature 1: "The Collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate and Men's Choices"
Michifumi Isoda wrote the following in "The Road to the Modern State: The Role of the Former Shogunate Vassals," in the pages of 14 and after:
************************************
... The Japanese delegation to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru (middle 6th line in the page 19)
************************************


This is not correct because the Japanese delagetion was on board the USS Powhatan, but not on the Kanrin Maru.
咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
 
ネット:恋に落ちる百科事典 Hitopedia
勝海舟、福沢諭吉、ジョン万次郎が使節? 目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Hitopedia, the encyclopedia of falling in love
Were Kaishu Katsu, Yukichi Fukuzawa, and John Manjiro envoys?

                                 Back to the Table of Contents

Hitopedia では
************************************
勝海舟福沢諭吉ジョン万次郎などが使節団としてえらばれ、咸臨丸に向かってアメリカに向かった 
****************************************
として、
・ほんとうの遣米使節の名前は一人も出てこない。
・「咸臨丸に向かって」は…  「・・・乗って」のあやまりであろう。とにかく遣米使節は咸臨丸には一人も乗っていないのが史実。

・この後でポーハタン号も出てくるが、咸臨丸との関係は不明。

In Hitopedia
************************************
Kaishu Katsu, Yukichi Fukuzawa, John Manjiro, and others were selected as part of the delegation and headed for the United States on the Kanrin Maru.
****************************************

Thus,
* The names of the real Japanese envoys to the U.S. are not mentioned at all.
* The word of "Powhatan" appears later, but its relationship to the "Kanrin Maru" is unclear.


 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
ネット:江戸散策 目次に戻る
Japanese with Hanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Internet: Edo Stroll Back to the Table of Contents

江戸散策 第110回 「勝海舟、軍艦咸臨丸で太平洋横断」
***********************************************************************
・・・副使は咸臨丸の木村摂津守だった。 
**********************************

「遣米使節副使は木村摂津守喜毅」説、「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」説は近年創作された誤りです。

Edo Stroll No. 110 "Kaishu Katsu Crosses the Pacific Ocean on the Warship Kanrin Maru" ***********************************************************************
... The vice-envoy was Settsunokami Kimura on board the Kanrin Maru.
**********************************

The theories that "the vice-envoy to the U.S. was Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura" and that "the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru" are errors invented in recent years.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
英語版ウィキペディア「咸臨丸」
福沢諭吉が遣米使節団員?
咸臨丸で渡米した遣米使節?

                                              目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Wikipedia in English, "Kanrin Maru"
Was Yukichi Fukuzawa a member of the Japanese delegation to the U.S.?
Did the Japanese delegation to the U.S. travel to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru?
   Back to the Table of Contents

英語版ウィキペディアの「咸臨丸」で
In Wikipedia, "Kanrin Maru," there is a following photo:

     

この写真に下記のような説明がついていた
This photo was accompanied by the following explanation

"Members of the Japanese Embassy to the United States (1860), who sailed on the Kanrin Maru and USS Powhatan. Fukuzawa Yukichi on the right."
咸臨丸とUSS Powhatanに乗って航海した遣米使節団のメンバ-。右側に福沢諭吉が腰掛けている。」

   **************************

1、遣米使節はポウハタン号で渡米した。咸臨丸には遣米使節団メンバーは一人も乗っていない。
2,遣米使節三使に事故があったときの代役は「副使」とはいえない。
参照:「木村摂津守喜毅は副使ではない」 http://tozenzi.cside.com/kimura-fukushi.html
3. 福沢諭吉は咸臨丸で渡米した。従って上の画像はすべて咸臨丸乗船者で、遣米使節団メンバーは一人もいない。

   **************************

This is not correct because of the following reasons:
1. The Japanese envoys to the U.S. went to the U.S. aboard the USS Powhatan. None of the members of the Japanese delegation to the U.S. were aboard the Kanrin Maru.
2. Substituting for the three envoys to the U.S. in the event of an accident cannot be considered a "vice-envoy." See: "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was not a vice envoy" http://tozenzi.cside.com/kimura-fukushi.html
3. Yukichi Fukuzawa went to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru. Therefore, all of the above images are of people aboard the Kanrin Maru, and none of them were members of the Japanese delegation to the U.S.


咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集  ウィキペディアの「アイスクリン」
                                              目次に戻る

Japanese with Kankin Maru Disease: A Case Study
In Wikipedia "Ice Crin"   Back to the Table of Contents

ウィキペディアの「アイスクリン」
アイスクリンの歴史について次のように解説している。  
  
*********************************
歴史
アイスクリンの歴史は、日本でのアイスクリームの歴史から派生したものである。
1860年(万延元年)に
臨海丸で渡米した使節団がアイスクリームを食べた際、「あいすくりん」と呼んだ

 *********近年下記のように修正した表記に変わっている*****

アイスクリンの歴史は、日本でアイスクリームの歴史から派生したものである。

1860年万延元年)に咸臨丸で渡米した人たちがアイスクリームを食べた際、「あいすくりん」と呼んだ。


In Wikipedia "Ice Crin," the following is written as the history of the ice crin (ice cream):          

*********************

History

The history of ice crin is derived from the history of ice cream in Japan. When the Japanese delegation traveled to the U.S. on the Rinkai Maru in 1860, they ate ice cream and called it "Ice Crin."  


********* The sentences have been changed in recent years to the following modified description: *****

The history of ice crin is derived from the history of ice cream in Japan. When people who went to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru in 1860 (the first year of the Man'en era) ate ice cream, they called it "ice crin."

********************************

1.「臨海丸」は咸臨丸の誤り
2.万延元年の遣米使節団は米艦ポウハタン号で渡米し、咸臨丸には一人も乗っていないから、これも誤り。
  ・咸臨丸一行がサンフランシスコでアイスクリームを食べたことが米国新聞には記載されている。しかし、咸臨丸側日本人の記録には見当たらない。したがって上記の説明「・・・咸臨丸で渡米した人たちが・・・食べた際あいすくりんと呼んだ」は「なんでも咸臨丸にする症候群」、と見られる。

3. 遣米使節団がワシントンでアイスクリームを食べたのは確かな史実。
 ・ワシントンへの迎えの川船フィラデルフィア号で出された「アイスクリン」がおいしかったと使節団員柳川當清「航海日記」に記載。
 ・ワシントンのウィラード・ホテルでの5月18日晩餐メニュー(東善寺所蔵)に、デザートとして「バニラアイスクリーム」が記載されています。

1. "Rinkai Maru" is an error for "Kanrin Maru."

2. The Japanese mission to the U.S. in 1860 (the first year of Man'en) went to the U.S. on the U.S. ship Powhatan, and no one was on board the Kanrin Maru, so "the Japanese delegation traveled to the U.S. on the Rinkai Maru (Kanrin Maru)" is also a mistake. By the way, newspapers in the U.S. at the time reported that the Japanese people of the Kanrin Maru ate ice cream in San Francisco. However, this is not found in any records of the Japanese on board the Kanrin Maru. Therefore, the above explanation, "When people who went to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru in 1860 (the first year of the Man'en era) ate ice cream, they called it "ice crin," can be seen as "a syndrome of making everything into Kanrin-Maru."

3. It is a historical fact that the Japanese delegation to the U.S. ate ice cream in Washington D.C. The "Ice cream" served on the riverboat Philadelphia that picked them up at Washington was delicious, according to "Voyage Diary" written by Masakiyo Yanagawa, a member of the Japanese delegation. Also, the May 18 dinner menu at the Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C. (in the collection of Tozenji Temple) lists "vanilla ice cream" as a dessert.


 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
NHK TV「いだてん」

                              目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                NHK TV "Idaten"       Back to the Table of Contents


  またやった!NHK 
■ 勝海舟を遣米使節にしてしまった
NHK大河ドラマ『いだてん』
2019平成31年2月10日第6回放映の場面


NHK has done it again!
■ NHK Taiga Drama "Idaten" that turned Kaishu Katsu into an envoy to the U.S.
Scenes from the 6th airing of the drama on February 10, 2019 (Heisei 31)


            
           
▲ワシントン海軍造船所を見学した遣米使節一行
                 The U.S. envoys visited the Washington Naval Shipyard.

嘉納治五郎が金栗四三に語りかけるシーンで上記の画像を流し、画像にかぶせて
     *****************************
 『かの勝海舟先生が、日米修好通商条約を結ぶに際しアメリカに渡ったとき、日本人の使者はちょん髷に羽織袴、腰には刀を差していた。そりゃあ山猿と笑われただろう。たかだか50年前の話だよ……』
    ****************************
と笑いものの例にしている。

どんな過ちかピンとこない方へ、
 ① 咸臨丸は遣米使節が乗ったポウハタン号の「護衛という名目の練習航海」で日本~サンフランシスコ~ハワイ~日本を往復しただけで、ワシントンには行ってない。
 ② 勝海舟は遣米使節ではないから「勝海舟先生が日米修好通商条約を結ぶ…」セリフは大間違い。
 ③ 遣米使節一行はアメリカで大歓迎を受け、ワシントン・ボルティモア・フィラデルフィア・ニューヨークと行く先々の町で全員馬車に乗せられ、街を一周するパレードで遠回りしてホテルに案内されている。新聞で報道される日本人の様子に、アメリカでは日本ブームが起こった。

The above image was played during the scene where Jigoro Kano talks to Shizo Kanakuri, and the following dialogue was played over the image:
   *****************************  
"When the famous Kaishu Katsu went to the U.S. to sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the U.S., the Japanese envoys wore a haori hakama with a topknot and a sword at his waist. They must have been laughed at as yamazarus (mountain monkeys). That was only 50 years ago..."
   ****************************
It was making fun of the delegation by calling them "Yamazarus."


For those who can't see what were wrong with the above:  

(1) The Kanrin Maru only sailed from Japan to San Francisco and returned to Japan via Hawaii on a "training voyage in the name of escorting" the Powhatan, on which Japanese envoys to the U.S. boarded. In other words, the Kanrin Maru did not go to Washington.  

(2) Kaishu Katsu was not an envoy to the U.S., so the line "Kaishu Katsu went to the U.S. to sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the U.S." is a big mistake.  

(3) The Japanese envoys to the U.S. received a great welcome in the U.S. and were all put on horse-drawn carriages in Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and other towns they went to, and were led to their hotels after a long detour in a parade that circled the city. The Japanese people's appearance reported in newspapers caused a Japanese boom in the United States.

 

 
問題点
1. いまだに「勝海舟が遣米使節、という錯覚」の勝海舟神話に惑わされ、そのまま堂々と放映しているNHK。これで「勝海舟がワシントンに行った」と錯覚する日本人が増えたことだろう。

2. 小栗上野介が帰国後に建設を進めた横須賀造船所が日本産業革命の地となったのは、このワシントン海軍造船所見学を契機としている。しかし、脚本家はそのことを知らないまま、アメリカ人に大歓迎されたこの記念写真を「山猿の日本人が笑われた」例として貶(おとし)めている。
 
「山猿」と笑われているのは、歴史事実を知らない脚本家とそれを平気で流したNHK。

Problems:

1. NHK is still misled by the myth of "Kaishu Katsu's mission to the U.S.," and is proudly broadcasting the story as it is, which has probably led more Japanese to believe that "Kaishu Katsu went to Washington."

2. It was this visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard that led to the Yokosuka Shipyard, which Kozukenosuke Oguri proceeded to build after returning to Japan, becoming the site of the Japanese Industrial Revolution. The scriptwriter, however, was unaware of this fact, and undermined this commemorative photo, which was welcomed with open arms by the Americans, as an example of "the Japanese being laughed at as mountain monkeys." What is being laughed at as "mountain monkeys" are the scriptwriter who is ignorant of this historical fact and NHK, which broadcast it with impunity.

 
司馬遼太郎はこの記念写真で堂々とした気品をあらわしている武士たちの姿をたたえ、ついでに明治5年の岩倉米欧使節団の写真(明治維新バンザイの司馬氏すら)「品下がる」と切り捨てている=「成り上がり者、品がない」ということ。

Ryotaro Shiba praises the dignified and noble appearance of the warriors in this commemorative photo, and incidentally dismisses the photo of the Iwakura Mission to the U.S. and Europe in 1872 as "degrading." Even Shiba, who gave countenance to the Meiji Restoration, said that.
 

参考ページ
NHK『いだてん』も盲信、勝海舟の「咸臨丸神話」(リンク)
:パレードの例― 遣米使節の旅フィラデルフィア 

Reference page
NHK's 'Idaten' also blindly believes in Kaishu Katsu's 'myth of Kanrin Maru' (link)
Example of a parate: The Journey of the Japanese Delegation in 1860 Philadelphia

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
NHK TV
「美の壺」
                                               目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
NHK TV "Bi-no Tsubo" (The pot of beauty)     Back to the Table of Contents
 ◆ワシントンに現れた「咸臨丸遣米使節団」!!

NHKテレビ「美の壺」でワシントンに咸臨丸を登場させたNHK
  2018平成30年1月5日(金)放映 「明治150年 文明開化」


◆"Japanese Mission on board the Kanrin Maru" appeared in Washington, D.C.!


NHK TV's "Bi-no Tsubo" made the Kanrin Maru appear in Washington, D.C.   
Aired on Friday, January 5, 2018 (Heisei 30), "150th Anniversary of the Meiji Era: Civilization and Enlightenment"

      

  
タイトルで「咸臨丸の遣米使節団」 と堂々と咸臨丸病を露呈してしまった。
   They revealed the Kanrin Maru disease with the title, "Japanese Mission on board the Kanrin Maru."

どんな誤りかピンとこない方へ、
1,遣米使節は咸臨丸には乗らず、アメリカ軍艦ポウハタン号で渡米しワシントンへ。
 咸臨丸は護衛という名目の練習航海で日本~サンフランシスコ~ハワイ~日本を往復しただけ。遣米使節は乗っていない。咸臨丸と遣米使節団はほとんど無関係。

2,この写真は遣米使節一行がワシントン海軍造船所を見学した時の記念写真で、サンフランシスコから帰った咸臨丸のメンバーがここに居るはずがない。

For those who do not understand what kind of errors there are:

1. The Japanese envoys to the U.S. did not board the Kanrin Maru, but traveled to the U.S. on the U.S. warship Powhatan and to Washington on another ship. The Kanrin Maru made only a training voyage under the name of escorting the envoys from Japan to San Francisco, Hawaii, and back to Japan. No envoys to the U.S. were on board the Kanrin Maru. The Kanrin Maru and the Japanese envoys to the U.S. had almost nothing to do with each other.

2. The above photo on the left is a commemorative photo taken after the Japanese envoys visited the Washington Naval Shipyard, so the members of the Kanrin Maru who returned to Japan from San Francisco could not be there.


以下は万延元年遣米使節子孫の会の抗議を受けてNHKから届いた謝罪文。
*******************************
万延元年遣米使節子孫の会 M 様

番組をご覧いただきまして誠にありがとうございます。
ご指摘いただいた写真表記の件ですが、確認させていただき、確かに間違いであることが分かりました。大変申し訳ありませんでした。

この度は貴重なご指摘、本当にありがとうございました。
今後ともよろしくお願いいたします。

美の壺制作担当
NHKふれあいセンター(放送)


The following is an apology letter from NHK in response to the protests of the Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the United States America 1860 Inc.

Dear Mr. M, The Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the United States America 1860 Inc.

Thank you very much for watching our program. Regarding the photo description you pointed out, we have checked it and found that it is indeed a mistake. We are very sorry for the mistake.

Thank you very much for your valuable comments. We look forward to working with you in the future.

"Bi-no Tsubo" Production Manager
NHK Fureai Center (Broadcasting)  


*****************************

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
山川出版社  『日本史図録 
                                               目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Yamakawa Shuppansha
"Illustrated Catalogue of Japanese History" Back to the Table of Contents

山川ビジュアル版「日本史図録」山川出版社 (2014平成26年4月発行)は・・・
・歴史教科書などの出版で知られる山川出版社発行の教科書の補助教材書
・山川出版から「遣米使節がホワイトハウスで日米修好通商条約の批准書を手渡す場面のアメリカの新聞の絵を掲載したい」、という要請があって貸し出し、出来上がって届けられた本が以下のようなものだった。

***(P179より)*開国②/開港とその影響 下記はその説明文 **********

日米修好通商条約の批准書交換 


Yamakawa Visual Edition "Illustrated Catalogue of Japanese History" published by Yamakawa Shuppansha Ltd. (April 2014 Heisei 26)

Yamakawa Shuppansha Ltd., a well-known publisher of history textbooks and other textbooks, has published a textbook supplement. They asked me to lend them a copy of a picture from an American newspaper showing Japanese envoys to the U.S. handing over the ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the U.S. at the White House, so I did. The book that was completed and sent to me, and it contained the following:


**** (p. 179)** Opening of Japan (2) / Opening of Ports and its Impact The following is the explanation: **********
Exchange of ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the U.S. and Japan

 〈説明文〉

1860年、
新見正興を正使とする遣米使節が米艦ポウハタン号で渡米。その際、勝義邦(海舟)を艦長とする咸臨丸が随行した。絵はワシントンでブキャナン大統領と謁見した時の様子。

青字…はゴシック体で記述している。

 <Description>

In 1860, envoys to the U.S., led by Masaoki Shinmi, went to the U.S. aboard the USS Powhatan. On that occasion, the Kanrin Maru, captained by (Kaishu) Yoshikuni Katsu, accompanied them. The picture shows the scene when they had an audience with President Buchanan in Washington, D.C.

(Note) The words of "Masaoki Shinmi" and " Yoshikuni Katsu" are accentuated with Gothic type characters.

*******************以上が引用ページ****************

・説明文の事前チェックを怠った当方もミスだが、まさか山川出版社がこういうことで済ませるとは、想定外だった。

  
問題点:
・サンフランシスコから帰った咸臨丸・勝海舟を、なぜ無関係のワシントン・ホワイトハウスの説明に入れるのか。
・この説明文でまた「勝海舟が咸臨丸でワシントンに行った」と誤解する日本人が量産されるに違いない。

・誤った事例:
ワシントンを旅行すると、現在でも日本人ガイドで、遣米使節一行が宿泊したウィラード・ホテル
 「勝海舟が泊まったホテル…」
と説明するガイドがいる。そして、ほとんどの日本人がその説明に疑問を持たない!!

・山川出版社編集部に平成26年4月に苦情を申し入れてあるが、9月10日現在返信なし。

It is my mistake for not checking the description in advance, but we did not expect Yamakawa Shuppansha Ltd. to get away with this kind of description.   

Problems:
- The Kanrin Maru and Kaisyu Katsu did not go to Washington, but returned to Japan from San Francisco. Why were they included in the explanation of Washington and White House?
- This explanation will surely lead to the mass production of Japanese people who misunderstand that "Kaishu Katsu went to Washington on the Kanrin Maru."

False example: If you travel to Washington, you may see Japanese guides who still refer to the Willard Hotel, where the Japanese envoys to the U.S. stayed, as "the hotel where Kaishu Katsu stayed." Sadly, most Japanese tourists do not question that explanation!

We lodged a complaint with the editorial department of Yamakawa Shuppansha in April 2014 (Heisei 26), but have not received a reply as of September 10, 2014.


・さらに問題点
この本の5ページ後の「幕末の科学技術と文化」(P183)では

長崎海軍伝習所の設立…が大きな画像で紹介され、「…勝海舟や榎本武揚らも参加している。」と紹介、
咸臨丸の横断…荒波にもまれる咸臨丸の絵が上記の遣米使節の画像より大きく掲載されている。

…と、「何でも咸臨丸・勝海舟」の風潮をあおっている。どうして、どの程度、これが「科学技術と文化」に貢献したのだろう。
・そして、幕末慶応元年に建設開始、出来た工場から操業して慶応年間には製綱所が蒸気機関でロープを製造していた日本の産業革命の地横須賀製鉄所(造船所)は、名前も出てこない。

・この本では代わりに紹介する近代化の例は、富岡製糸場まで。横須賀は無視している。→参考ページ:「富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹」

Other Problems: Five pages later in this book, in "Science, Technology and Culture at the End of the Edo Period" (p. 183), we found the following:

- The establishment of Nagasaki Naval Training Center: It is described with a large image, "...in which Kaishu Katsu, Takeaki Enomoto, and others also participated."
- The Kanrin Maru crossing the Pacific Ocean... The picture of the Kanrin Maru crossing the Pacific Ocean in rough seas is shown larger than the above picture of the Japanese envoys to the U.S."

The description prompt a trend of "everything is Kamrin-maru/Kaishu Katsu." Why and to what extent did this contribute to "science, technology and culture"?

Moreover, they do not even describe the Yokosuka Ironworks (Shipyard), the site of Japan's Industrial Revolution. The construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks began in the first year of Keio at the end of the Edo period, and the completed plants were operated one after another, and by the Keio era, a rope manufacturing plant was producing ropes with steam engines.

In this book, the examples of modernization presented instead go as far as the Tomioka Silk Mill, and the Yokosuka Ironworks is ignored. → Reference page: "Tomioka Silk Mill is a sister of Yokosuka Shipyard." 
 

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
山川出版社 『秘蔵古写真 幕末』  
                                              目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Yamakawa Shuppansha
"Bakumatsu - Hizo Koshashin" (Secret old photographs of the End of the Edo Period)

                                       Back to the Table of Contents

◇山川出版社秘蔵古写真 末』日本カメラ博物館監修   2019令和元年4月刊

〇まず山川出版社のHPで本書を紹介し、「解説」で堂々と特に日本カメラ博物館にしかない勝海舟の遣米使節団一行の写真は、すべてを掲載・・・という決定的な錯誤をしている。
 
*勝海舟は遣米使節ではない。この解説は「勝海舟が率いた遣米使節団」という誤解をもとに書かれていることがわかる。

〇そして本書の「遣米使節」を見ると、
 まず正使新見豊前守正興の画像(モノクロ)があり、ページをめくると「ポウハタン号に乗り込み…」として遣米使節の解説が左ページに。
 ところが右21ページになんと勝海舟の写真をカラーで載せて認識の誤りを披露している。画像の説明文では
「使節団随行の咸臨丸の艦長として云々…」とあるが、その次のページからの画像はすべてポウハタン号で渡米した遣米使節団のメンバーだけ。咸臨丸のメンバーはほかには誰も掲載されていないから、勝海舟を遣米使節と誤解して堂々と紛れ込ませたことになる。

〇結論 このままでは勝海舟がワシントン・ニューヨークまで行ったと誤解する読者が生まれる。遣米使節ではない勝海舟を載せたければ遣米使節団メンバーの終わりの次のページに付け足せばいい。その前に
「勝海舟の遣米使節団」という誤った認識を勉強し直してほしい。
  監修日本カメラ博物館とのことだが、山川出版社には監修者がいないのだろうか。


◯ついでに訂正を  
・P37 画像「ブキャナン大統領に会って国書を奉呈している遣米使節」の説明文を
「歓迎パーティー」としているのは誤り。 このときパーティーはしていない。女性がいるからパーティーと錯覚したらしいが、高官夫人や娘が「私たちも日本人を見た~い」「それじゃあ、仕度しなさい」と連れられてきただけ。当時大変な日本ブームが起きていたことの表れ。逆に、日本人はこういう公式の場に女性がいることに驚いた。
 日本人は左から通訳名村五八郎・正使新見豊前守正興・目付小栗豊後守忠順・副使村垣淡路守範正・外国奉行支配組頭成瀬善四郎正典  
*サンフランシスコから帰国した咸臨丸の勝海舟はいない。
 
使節が入室し、一礼して後尾の人物成瀬正典
(まさおき)が持つ箱入りの国書を正使に渡し、正使が箱から取り出して将軍からの挨拶を読み上げ、箱ごと大統領に手渡し、また一礼して退室しただけ。この和式儀礼のあと控室に接待係官デュポンが来て、「日本式はそれでよいか? ではまた入ってくれ」と勧められ、再度入室して大統領からの挨拶があった。
 
・p20-下から2行目 「台湾」→削除

◇ Yamakawa Shuppansha "Bakuhisou - Hizo Koshashin" (Secret old photographs of the End of the Edo Period), supervised by the JCII Camera Museum, published in April 2019 (Reiwa 4).

The book is introduced on Yamakawa Shuppansha's website
, and in the "Commentary" section, the publisher proudly states, "In particular, all the photographs of Kaishu Katsu's delegation to the U.S., which are only available at the JCII Camera Museum, are included here..." This is a definite error.  

* Kaishu Katsu was not an envoy to the United States. It is clear that this commentary is based on the misunderstanding that "the mission to the U.S. was led by Kaishu Katsu."

* And when we look at the "envoys to the U.S." section in this book, we see the following:

First, there is a black-and-white image of the envoy Buzennokami Masaoki Shinmi, and when you turn the page, you will see the explanation of the mission to the U.S. on the left page as "Boarding the Powhatan...".  

However, on page 21 on the right, there is a color photo of Kaishu Katsu, showing the error of recognition of the delegation. The explanatory text of the picture reads, "As the captain of the Kanrin Maru accompanying the mission, and so on...," but all the pictures from the next page show only the members of the mission to the U.S., who went to the U.S. on the USS Powhatan. Since no other members of the Kanrin Maru are listed, it means that Kaishu Katsu was mistakenly and unashamedly mixed up with the Japanese envoys to the U.S.


* Conclusion: If this goes on, readers will misunderstand that Kaishu Katsu went to Washington and New York. If Yamakawa Shuppansha wanted to include a page of Kaishu Katsu who was not a member of the mission to the U.S., they should have added it to the page following the page of the mission to the U.S. But before they do that, they should relearn the misconception of "Kaishu Katsu's mission to the U.S."  

I understand that the book is supervised by the JCII Camera Museum, but doesn't Yamakawa Shuppansha have a supervisor?


* In addition, they should correct the following:  

Page 37 - They refer to the image of "The Japanese envoy to the U.S. meeting President Buchanan and presenting the National Letter to him," as a "welcoming party," which is incorrect. There was no party at this time. They thought it was a party because of the presence of women. However, the women were the wives and daughters of high-ranking officials, and they were only brought there because they said, "We want to see the Japanese too." Such popularity was a sign of the huge Japanese boom that was taking place at the time in the U.S. On the contrary, the Japanese were surprised to see women in such a place.

The Japanese in the image in the previous case of "Illustrated Catalogue of Japanese History," from left to right, are Gohachiro Namura, interpreter; Buzennokami Masaoki Niimi, official envoy; Bungonokami Tadamasa Oguri, censor; Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, vice envoy; and Zenshiro Masaoki Naruse, head of the Foreign Magistrate's ruling group.   

*Kaishuu Katsu, who had returned from San Francisco on the Kanrin Maru, was not there.  

The envoys entered the room, bowed, and handed a boxed Kokusho (national letter) held by Masaoki Naruse, a person in the rear, to the official envoy, who took it out of the box, read out the greeting from the Shogun, handed the box to the president, bowed again, and simply left the room. After this Japanese-style ceremony, the receptionist, Mr. du Pont, came into the anteroom and asked, "Is that the Japanese style?" He recommended that the envoys re-entered the room, where they were greeted by the President.

P20 - 2nd line from the bottom: "Taiwan" should be deleted
.
 
 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
山川出版社 『レンズが撮らえた幕末維新の日本』
                                               目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Yamakawa Shuppansha
"Bakumatsu-Ishin-no Nippon as Captured by the Lens"
(Japan at the End of Edo Period and the Meiji Restoration Era as Captured by the Lens)"

                                                    Back to the Table of Contents
◇山川出版社 「レンズが撮らえた幕末維新の日本」 
                  2017平成29年12月刊

◯幕末明治の海外渡航  冒頭に「万延元年遣米使節団」のタイトルがあるが、そのページに掲載されている
画像はすべて咸臨丸の関係者

おかしい、と見直すと最初の説明文に
「遣米使節団はポウハタン号と
咸臨丸に乗って渡米…」
というおかしな文章になっている。
*遣米使節(正使・副使・目付)及び団員は咸臨丸には乗っていない。

 推測するに「咸臨丸の木村喜毅は副使」という説や「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」という説をまだ信じて、咸臨丸に木村喜毅が乗っているから「遣米使節団が乗った咸臨丸」としたのであろう。

◇ Yamakawa Shuppansha, "Japan at the End of the Edo Period and the Meiji Restoration Era as Captured by the Lens" Published in December, 2017 (Heisei 29)

Overseas Travel at the End of the Edo and Meiji Periods: The first page of the book is titled "Man'en Gen'nen Japanese Mission to the United States," but all the images on that page are of people related to the Kanrin Maru. I thought this was odd, so I reviewed it and found that the first explanatory sentence reads, "The Japanese envoys to the United States traveled to the United States aboard the Powhatan and the Kanrin Maru..." It is such a strange sentence.
The envoys (official envoy, vice envoy, censor) and members of the delegation did not board the Kanrin Maru.
 
My guess is that they still believed the theories that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy" and "the ship on which the vice envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru," and assumed that "the Japanese delegation was on the Kanrin Maru" because Kimura was on the Kanrin Maru.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
          東京新聞             目次に戻る 
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                                  Tokyo Shimbun Newspaper          Back to the Table of Contents
 ◇東京新聞 (2010平成20年1月1日)は…こちらに全文
咸臨丸の渡米から150年」というタイトルで、「咸臨丸は…遣米使節団を乗せて太平洋を横断」と報道した。「日本人単独」というサブタイトルも間違い。

The Tokyo Shimbun (January 1, 2010 or Heisei 20)...full text here.

Under the title "150 years after Kanrin Maru's arrival in the U.S.," the article reported that "Kanrin-Maru...crossed the Pacific Ocean carrying a delegation of Japanese envoys to the U.S." This is incorrect since the Japanese delegation to the U.S. was all aboard the USS Powhatan. The subtitle "Japanese alone" is also wrong.


          

 
おかしいのは、この記事の途中に下記のような文章もあって
代表新見豊前守正興だけは米国船で渡米したように読める。さらに目付「小栗上野介も新見に同行」と紹介されているから、それでは遣米使節団の誰が咸臨丸に乗っていったのか? とわけが解らなくなる。
 なんでも咸臨丸、と思いこんでいるからこういうおかしな記事ができる。
*記事後半には電話取材があった住職村上泰賢の談話も入っていて、この記事の内容補強に使われてしまっていた! 取材されたことを反省 m(_。_;m

What is strange is that in the middle of this article, there is a sentence that reads as follows: "Only the representative, Buzennokami Masaoki Shinmi, traveled to the United States on an American ship." It is also mentioned that "Kozukenosuke Oguri also accompanied Shinmi." They make it difficult to understand who in the envoys to the U.S. actually boarded the Kanrin Maru.

This kind of strange article is created by assuming that everything is about the Kanrin Maru.

* The second half of the article includes an interview with me (Taiken Murakami), the priest of Tozenji Temple, who was interviewed by phone, and it was used to reinforce the content of this article! I regret that I was interviewed...(-_-;).

         
咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
毎日新聞
                                               目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                                 Mainichi Shinbun Newspaper         Back to the Table of Contents

毎日新聞(昭和50年10月3日)は・・・

毎日新聞は昭和50年に下記のように、 サンフランシスコから帰った咸臨丸の勝海舟を、ワシントンに登場させる報道でひんしゅくをかった。

「フォード大統領が両陛下をホワイトハウスに歓迎して催した晩餐会は、きらびやかで、しかも・・・・親しみのあふれた夜会だった。・・・・イーストルームは100余年前、勝海舟も加わっていた遣米使節団が日米修好条約に調印した部屋。・・・」

The Mainichi Shimbun (October 3, 1975 or Showa 50)...

In 1975, the Mainichi Shimbun reported the following story about the appearance in Washington of Kaishu Katsu, who had returned to Japan from San Francisco on the Kanrin Maru, to the consternation of the public.

"President Ford welcomed Their Majesties to the White House for a glittering and ・・・・ friendly soiree. ・・・・ East Room is the room where, more than 100 years ago, the Japanese Mission to the U.S., which included Kaishu Katsu, signed the Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan..."


咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
小学館『日本大百科全書』
                                               目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                   Shogakukan "The Complete Japanese Encyclopedia"  Back to the Table of Contents

「日本大百科全書」は・・・

小学館の「日本大百科全書」では、遣米使節が会ったブキャナン大統領をこう説明する。

「ブキャナン James Buchanan(1791-1868) ・・・1857年大統領に就任。・・・、なお、日米修好通商条約批准書交換のための遣米使節船、咸臨丸がサンフランシスコに到着したのは、ブキャナン大統領の時代である。(中谷義和)」(1988・昭和63年発行)

ワシントンで大統領に直接会見した遣米使節がいるのに、「(サンフランシスコに)咸臨丸がついたのはこの時代」という説明では、ポウハタン号の使節はどこへ行っちゃったの?、というおかしなことになる。

「遣米使節船、咸臨丸」
という表現もあいまいで、「遣米使節船(ポウハタン号)と咸臨丸」「遣米使節船の咸臨丸」と、どちらにもとれる。もしかしたら、追及されたときの言い訳と、後者にとられる錯覚と、「、」一つで両方をねらったかと勘ぐりたくなる。

じつはこの文章は、たまたま私がゲラを見かけたことがあって、
「遣米使節勝海舟が咸臨丸でアメリカへ渡って会った大統領・・・うんぬん」というでたらめな原稿だったので編集部あてに、間違っているから直したほうがよい、と手紙を出したところ「ご指摘ありがとうございます。・・・」と返事が来て、出来あがったら、まだ咸臨丸にこだわったおかしな文章のまま、CDまで売られている。

The Complete Japanese Encyclopedia: The Encyclopedia, published by Shogakukan, describes President Buchanan, whom the Japanese envoys met, as follows:

"James Buchanan (1791-1868) became president in 1857. It was during President Buchanan's presidency that Kanrin Maru, the ship for the Japanese envoys for the exchange of ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan. (Yoshikazu Nakatani)" (published in 1988, Showa 63)

The explanation that "the arrival of the Kanrin Maru (in San Francisco) was during this period," while there was an envoy to the U.S. who met the President in person in Washington, makes it seem odd that the envoy on the Powhatan would have gone where? This is a strange thing to say.

The phrase "U.S. embassy ship, Kanrin Maru" is also ambiguous and can be taken either way: "Japanese envoys' ship (USS Powhatan) and Kanrinmaru" or "Japanese embassy ship, Kanrin Maru." It is tempting to suspect that the author was trying to create both an excuse in case he was pursued and the illusion that he was trying to create the latter with a single ",".

I happened to have seen a copy of this article once, and it was a manuscript not based on facts that read, "Kaishu Katsu, the envoy to the U.S., met the president of the United States ..." I wrote a letter to the editor saying that it was incorrect and should be corrected, to which he replied, "Thank you for pointing that out. However, when the manuscript was completed, not only was it still in the same strange style, but it was even sold on CD.


咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
講談社  週刊『再現日本史』
                                             目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
              Kodansha Weekly "Reproduction of Japanese History"    Back to the Table of Contents

週刊「再現日本史」(2001・平成13年7月31日号)は・・・

講談社発行の週刊「再現日本史」という、CGを使った場面構成が新鮮で写真も迫力があり楽しく読める本だが、2001・平成13年7月31日号「幕末維新④」がやはり咸臨丸である。

表紙・・・
「三七日間の大冒険、咸臨丸アメリカへ」という大きな見出しと、海を渡る復元された咸臨丸の写真。
1・2ページ見開き・・・勝海舟、福沢諭吉、木村攝津守3人が、サンフランシスコの町を背景にする、大きなCG複合写真。
ページ・・・「アメリカで熱烈歓迎」という見出しで、ニューヨークのホテル前を出発する一行の馬車の列の写真。ホテルの窓にはびっしりと日の丸の旗。

The weekly "Reproduction of Japanese History" (July 3, 2001, Heisei 13)

The weekly "Reproduction of Japanese History" published by Kodansha is an enjoyable book with a fresh scene composition using computer graphics and powerful photographs. However, the July 31, 2001 issue, "The Bakumatsu Restoration (4)," is also about Kanrin Maru, but not about the envoys on USS Powhatan.

On the cover: There is a large headline that reads, "Great Adventure of 37 Days, Kanrin Maru to the U.S.," and a picture of the Kanrin Maru crossing the sea is on the page.
Page 1 and 2 spreads: A large CG composite photo of Kaishu Katsu, Yukichi Fukuzawa, and Settsunokami Kimura with the city of San Francisco in the background.
Page 3: Under the headline "An enthusiastic welcome in the U.S.," a photo of a line of carriages leaving in front of a hotel in New York, with the Hinomaru flags in the windows of the hotel.



咸臨丸の3人(東善寺・小栗上野介)

    ▲1・2ページ
 サンフランシスコの古い街並みと福沢諭吉・木村摂津守・勝海舟の合成写真
       ▲ Composite photo of old San Francisco streets and Yukichi Fukuzawa, Settsunokami Kimura, and Kaishu Katsu



▲3・4ページ(見開き) 初めてのサムライ、アメリカで熱烈歓迎
▲ 3 and 4 pages (facing page)  Samurais seen for the first time, enthusiastically welcomed in the U.S.

ここまで見てくるとふつうの読者は、咸臨丸でアメリカへわたった勝海舟らが大歓迎を受けている、と理解(誤解)する。しかし、よく見ると

3ページのホテルは遣米使節一行が泊まったニューヨーク・ブロードウェイのメトロポリタンホテルだから、サンフランシスコから帰国した咸臨丸・勝海舟らは関係ない。
4ページもよく見ると遣米使節一行と従者がワシントンやニューヨークの町中で歓迎される写真で、咸臨丸・勝海舟らは関係ない。

よほど知ってる人でなければ、ほとんどこれで「咸臨丸の勝海舟がワシントン・ニューヨークで歓迎された」と錯覚する。

ページでようやく本物の遣米使節一行の写真が登場する。下の画像
ワシントン海軍造船所を見学した直後の写真で、この見学が横須賀造船所の建設につながった記念すべき写真である。しかし、この本の写真説明は
ワシントン上陸後の記念写真と、あたかも観光地めぐりの説明でそっけない。

Ordinary readers would understand (or misunderstand) that Kaisyu Katsu and his crew received a great welcome when they traveled to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru. However, if you look closely, you may notice the following:

- The hotel on page 3 is the Metropolitan Hotel on Broadway in New York where the Japanese envoys stayed. Therefore, the Kanrin Maru, Kaishu Katsu, and others who returned to Japan from San Francisco have nothing to do with it.
- Page 4 is also with a photo of the Japanese envoys and their attendants being welcomed in the streets of Washington and New York, and has nothing to do with the Kanrin Maru, Kaishu Katsu, and others.

Unless you know a lot, they almost give the illusion that "Kaishu Katsu of the Kanrin Maru was welcomed in Washington and New York."

On page 5, a photo of the real envoys to the U.S. finally appears. ▼ See the image below.
It is a commemorative photo taken just after the tour of the Washington Naval Shipyard, which led to the construction of the Yokosuka Shipyard. However, the book's explanation of the photo is rather vague: "Commemorative photo after landing in Washington," as if it were a tour of a sightseeing spot.




 

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
産経新聞
                                              目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                              Sankei Shimbun Newspaper     Back to the Table of Contents

産経新聞(2003.平成15.5.14)は・・・・・・

 コラム「産経抄」で、「日本の近代産業は造船業から進水したといっていい…」、として浦賀ドックが明治29年に誕生したこと、そして今年閉鎖されることになったので、ぜひ造船博物館として残すべきである、という識者の提言を紹介して、保存を呼びかけている。
 
 ただし文中で次のように書くのはいかがなものか。
 
「日本人初の太平洋横断となった遣米使節団を乗せた咸臨丸もこの港から船出した」

①日本人初の太平洋横断は 咸臨丸より約250年早く、1610(慶長15年)田中勝助・1613(慶長十八)年支倉常長がメキシコへ渡っているから、誤り。
②遣米使節団は、ポウハタン号に品川沖から乗り込んで渡米し、咸臨丸には乗っていないから、誤り。
・・・です。

The Sankei Shimbun (May 14, 2003, Heisei 15)

In their column "Sankei Sho," they call for the preservation of the Uraga Dock. It also introduces a suggestion by an intellectual that the Uraga Dock, which was completed in 1896 and will be closed this year, should be preserved as a shipbuilding museum, saying, "We can say that Japan's modern industry was launched from the shipbuilding industry..."

However, it is not correct to write the following in the text:
"The "Kanrin Maru," which carried the Japanese delegation to the U.S., sailed from this port, making them the first Japanese to cross the Pacific Ocean."

(1) The first Japanese to cross the Pacific Ocean was Shosuke Tanaka who crossed the Pacific Ocean to Mexico in 1610 (Keicho 15) and also Tsunenaga Shikura went Mexico in 161 3 (Keicho 18), about 250 years earlier than Kanrin Maru, so the above description is incorrect.
(2) The Japanese delegation to the U.S. went to the U.S. aboard the USS Powhatan from Shinagawa, and did not board the Kanrin Maru, so the above description is incorrect.

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
松浦 玲『勝海舟』 中公新書
                                              目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                 Rei Matsuura's "Kaishu Katsu" by Chuko Shinsho      Back to the Table of Contents
◇中公新書 松浦玲『勝海舟』(1968年4月) のp71 挿絵 について下記のように記述。*
************************************
The following is a description of the illustration on p. 71 of Rei Matsuura's "Kaishu Katsu" (April, 1968) published by Chuko Shinsho.
************************************




 咸臨丸(アメリカの新聞にのったもの)
 Kanrin Maru (as seen in an American newspaper)

**************************************

ところが、この絵は「遣米使節が載っているロアノウク号」の銅版画で、「フランクレスリー イラスト新聞」1860年5月26日号に掲載されたもの。それを「なんでも咸臨丸」にしてしまった例。

*咸臨丸の絵はいくつかあるが、写真はまだ発見されていない。

However, this is a copperplate engraving of the "USS Roanoke with the Japanese envoys to the United States on board," which appeared in the May 2-6, 1860 issue of the "Frank Leslie Illustrated Newspaper." This is another example of how "anything goes" with the "Kanrin Maru."

* There are a few drawings of the Kanrin Maru, but a photograph has not yet been found.


咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
半藤一利『幕末史』
                                               目次に戻る

Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
     
Kazutoshi Hando's "Bakumatsu-shi (History of the End of the Edo Period)"
                                         Back to the Table of Contents
『幕末史』半藤一利(2008平成20年12月刊新潮社)
     
…… 勝海舟の船酔い説は福沢諭吉の厭味と書く本……
"Bakumatsu-shi (History of the End of the Edo Period)" by Kazutoshi Hando (December 2008 Heisei 20, published by Shinchosha)
 ...... A book that writes that the theory of Kaishu Katsu's seasickness is from Yukichi Fukuzawa's sarcasm: ......

勝海舟びいきの作家半藤氏は『幕末史』に次のように書く。

「伝習所時代に何度も船に乗り、難破しかけて天草の港に入り込んだこともある勝さんが、船酔いして使いものにならないなんてことはない筈です。・・・(中略)…だから勝つぁんの船酔い説は、少し福沢さんの厭味じゃないかと思います。…(中略)…のちに「日本海軍の父」と呼ばれる勝つぁんです。船酔いする海軍の父なんておかしいですよね」

史実:たしかに咸臨丸で船酔いしていた―「おかしい海軍の父」勝海舟
 ○咸臨丸乗り組みの日本人は、嵐に会ってほとんどが船酔いで動けなかった

「多人数の中、甲板上に出て動作をなす者は唯僅かに四五人のみ。この時に当って帆布を縮長上下する等のことは一切に亜人(アメリカ人)の助力を受く。彼らはこの暴風雨に逢うといえども一人も恐怖を抱く者なく、ほとんど平常に異なることなく動作をなす。之に継ぐ者はわが土人(日本人)にて唯僅かに中浜氏(ジョン万次郎)・小野氏〈友五郎〉・濱口氏(與右衛門)のみ」

 以上は(咸臨丸乗組みの斉藤留蔵「亜行新書」・『遣米使節史料集成』第五巻)より

In his book "Bakumatsu Shi (History of the End of the Edo Period)," Mr. Hando, a writer who is very fond of Kaishu Katsu, writes as follows:
"Katsu had been on board many times during his apprenticeship, and had even entered the port of Amakusa after nearly being shipwrecked, so it is not possible for Katsu-san to get seasick and be so useless. .... Therefore, I think that the theory of Mr. Katsu's seasickness was somewhat made by Mr. Fukuzawa's sarcasm. ...(omitted)...Katsu-san was later called the "father of the Japanese Navy, so it is strange to be the father of the Navy who gets seasick."

Historical fact: Kaishu Katsu was indeed seasick on the Kanrin Maru.

Japanese aboard the Kanrin Maru were almost all seasick and unable to work after encountering a storm.

"Among the many people on board, only four or five people were able to work on deck. At this time, we were assisted by the Americans in all matters such as raising and lowering the canvas. They were not even a single one of them afraid in the face of this storm, and they operated almost without any difference from normal. The only successors were Mr. Nakahama (John Manjiro), Mr. Ono (Tomogoro), and Mr. Hamaguchi (Okiemon).

The above is from "Ako-shinsho ('Travel to the U.S.' in paperback pocket edition)" by Tomezo Saito, a member of the Kanrin Maru crew, in the volume 5 of "the Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860 (Man'en 1)"


  
○勝海舟はどうか。木村摂津守喜毅も勝海舟も出発してすぐに
  
「艦長(勝)は下痢を起こし、提督(木村)は船に酔っている」
状態に陥り、これが何日たってもこれが好転しない

 
「艦長はまだ寝台に寝たきり、提督も同様」
木村が復帰しても、勝はなかなか船室から出られない。
 
「艦長は快方に向かっている。今日スープとブドウ酒を贈った。私がキャビンの扉を開けたとき、彼は寝床に上に座っていて、非常に感謝しているようであった。大変静かな人で、私は彼の声を聞いたことがない」
「今日、麟太郎艦長が出てきたが、まだ弱々しくデッキには立てない」
 
(以上はブルック「咸臨丸日記」)より

○ What about Kaishu Katsu? Both Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura and Kaishu Katsu showed symptoms of seasickness soon after their departure.
"The captain (Katsu) had diarrhea and the admiral (Kimura) was ship-drunk."
This did not get better any time soon.  
"The captain is still in his bunk, and so is the admiral."
When Kimura returned to the ship, Katsu was still unable to leave his cabin.  
"The captain is on the mend. I sent him soup and grape wine today. When I opened the cabin door, he was sitting on his bunk and seemed very grateful. A very quiet man, I never heard his voice."
"Captain Rintaro came out today, but he is still too weak to stand on deck."  

(The above is from John Mercer Brooke's "Diary of the Kanrin Maru")

 結局、ブルック大尉の『咸臨丸日記』によれば勝海舟がデッキまで上ってきたのは、航海中3回くらいで、サンフランシスコに着いた。ほとんど何もしなかった艦長といえる。福沢諭吉の嫌味でも何でもない事実。
 ブルック大尉の「咸臨丸日記」が『遣米使節史料集成 第5巻』(1961昭和36年)として公刊されて半世紀経過し、ほとんどの学者・作家が周知の史実を、こうして根拠もなく否定して語る作家がいることに驚く。この本『幕末史』巻末の参考文献に「遣米使節史料集成」が見当たらないから、基本資料を見ないまま幕末史を語っているのだろうか。ふつうの読者は『幕末史』を読んで「福沢諭吉は厭味な男」と解釈することだろう。

After all, according to Captain Brooke's "Diary of the Kanrin Maru," Kaishu Katsu came up to the deck only about three times during the voyage and arrived in San Francisco. We can say that Katsu was a captain who did almost nothing druing the voyage. A fact that is neither sarcasm nor anything else by Yukichi Fukuzawa.  

Half a century has passed since Captain Brooke's "Kanrin Maru Journal" was published in "the Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S., Volume 5" (1961 Showa 36). However, it is surprising that there are writers who speak in this way, denying without evidence the historical facts that are well known to most scholars and writers.

Since the "Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S." is not found in the bibliography at the end of this book, "Bakumatsu-shi (History of the End of the Edo Period)," is it possible that the author is talking about the history of the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate without looking at the basic documents? Ordinary readers reading "Bakumatsu Shi" will probably interpret "Fukuzawa Yukichi" as "a sarcastic man.


 歴史は
「船酔いして使いものにならないなんてことはない」「船酔いする海軍の父なんておかしい(『幕末史』)などと、感情で語ってはいけないと、つくづく思う。

I strongly believe that history should not be told based on emotions, as the auther wrote in the book, such as, "It is impossible (for Kaishu Katsu) to be seasick and useless," or "It is strange to think that the naval father (Kaishu Katsu) was seasick."

ポウハタン号
2400トン
遣米使節を乗せて
品川沖~ハワイ~サンフランシスコ~パナマ
まで運んだ

ついでに、この本には更にいくつかの誤認があるので指摘しておきます。
And by the way. I would like to point out a few more misconceptions in the book.

咸臨丸の派遣について Regarding the dispatch of the Kanrin Maru

・・・遣米使節がポウハタン号に乗ってワシントンへ連れて行ってもらう話を聞いた勝海舟は
「長崎にいた勝麟太郎は、なにもアメリカの船で行くことはない。日本の船で行こうじゃないかと急遽、江戸に戻って幕閣に面会し、「使節派遣は外国船でなくぜひ日本の船で」と盛んに主張します」(『幕末史』)

The following is written in the book:
When Kaishu (Rintaro) Katsu heard that the Japanese envoys to the United States were to be taken to Washington aboard the USS Powhatan... Katsu, who was in Nagasaki, said, "There is no need to go on an American ship. Why don't we go on a Japanese ship?" He then hurriedly returned to Edo (Tokyo) to meet with the Shogunate cabinet, and actively insisted that the envoys be dispatched not on a foreign ship but on a Japanese ship.

○以上、あたかも勝海舟の主張で咸臨丸派遣が決まったかのようになっていますが

It sounds as if the decision to dispatch Kanrin Maru was made at the insistence of Kaishu Katsu. However, ...

遣米使節渡米に際しては勝海舟が乗ることに決まるずっと前からアメリカ政府が迎えの船を寄越すことになっていた。さらに幕府側でいろいろ検討すると、日本の代表として10万石大名の格式で派遣するにふさわしい供揃えの人数を確保し、そのためのたくさんの装束、食料や諸道具を運ぶには、どうしてもあと一隻の別船を幕府で仕立てる必要がある。もしアメリカへ行ってから、現地雇いのアメリカ人を臨時に日本人風の服装にして行列を組んだ場合、逆にアメリカ人が日本にやってきたとき、同じように日本人を雇って異国風の支度をさせて行列を作られても、苦情を言えなくなる。

「下供の分は拠所よんどころなく夷人を相雇い候つもりを以て、…申上げ候へども、夷人相雇い召し連れ候節、彼の国の衣服着用為し致し候ては、御国風に相触れ、さりとて、此方の衣服に着替え為し致し候ては、この後彼の国より罷り越し候もの御當国の下人相雇い、彼の国の衣服着替え為し候節當難致すと察せられ…安政五年九月」(『幕末維新外交史料集成』第四巻)

 国の威厳を示すことが外交の基本であるから、使節の行列もそれにふさわしい人数で、しかも日本人だけで、格式を整えなければならない。迎えに来る米国海軍のフリゲート艦一艘には乗り切れないから、もう一艘を仕立てたい。


ということで、別船を派遣することが決定していた。

Long before it was decided that Kaishu Katsu would join the plan, the U.S. government was scheduled to send a ship to receive the Japanese mission to the United States. Further study by the Shogunate revealed that it was necessary for the Shogunate to arrange one more ship in order to secure a sufficient number of people to represent Japan in the rank of a 100,000-goku daimyo and to carry a large amount of clothing, food, and other equipment. If the envoys went to the U.S., and then hired Americans to temporarily dress in Japanese-style clothing and form a procession, they would not be able to complain when the Americans came to Japan and hired Japanese to prepare and form a procession in the same exotic style.
(Dated September 1858, Ansei 5)
(The Collection of Historical Materials on the diplomacy at the end of the Tokugawa Period, Vol. 4”)

Since the basis of diplomacy is to show the dignity of the country, the procession of envoys had to be appropriately large and solely Japanese in order to be dignified. Since the one frigate of the U.S. Navy that was coming to pick them up would not be able to accommodate them, they wanted to send another ship. Therefore, it was decided to dispatch another ship.


○勝海舟はどうしてもそこへ一緒に乗り込みたいということで、

「咸臨丸の艦長にするのでも、(勝が)『どうか行きたい』というので、……私から計らったのですが、なにぶん身分を上げることもできず、それが第一不平で、八ツ当たりです。始終部屋にばかし引っ込んでるのですが、船長のことですから相談しないわけにも行かず、相談すると『どうでもしろ』という調子で、それからいろいろ反対もされるので、実に困りました」(木村喜毅「咸臨丸船中の勝」)

という木村の記述の方が、ハッタりがなくて信用できる。半藤氏の言う「勝海舟の意見で派遣が決まった」のではない。資料根拠のない虚説を刊行するのはいかがなものか。
 参考:修身教科書が作った咸臨丸神話…半藤氏の錯覚はこの修身教科書による教育(洗脳)から抜け出せていないのではあるまいか。

○ Kaishu Katsu insisted on boarding with them. Yoshitake Kimura wrote the following about Katsu:

"I arranged for him to be the captain of the Kanrin Maru because he said, 'Please, I want to go with you." However, I could not raise his status, and Katsu was not happy about that. He was always staying in his room, but I couldn't help but consult him on daily matters because he was the captain of the ship. However, when I consulted with him, he would say, 'Do whatever you want,' while he would object to me in various ways, so I was really troubled."

Kimura's description is more credible because he is not bluffing. It is not that "the dispatch was decided based on the opinion of Kaishu Katsu," as Mr. Hando says. It is not a good idea to publish a false theory with no basis in data.

(Reference) The myth of Kanrin Maru created by Shushin textbooks: Mr. Hando's illusion may be because he has not escaped from this education (brainwashing) by Shushin textbooks.


○ほかに細かくあげれば、次の記述も明治以降の国威発揚意識の咸臨丸神話そのままだ。
「この時、何人か帰国するアメリカ人を一緒に乗せていってほしいと
頼まれます。」(『幕末史』)
…これも間違いで、頼まれたのはブルック大尉で頼んだのは日本側

 日本人だけの航海を心配した海軍奉行木村摂津守喜毅やハリスの手配で、ブルック大尉に同行を頼むと、「部下を10人連れて行かないと自分だけでは役に立たない」というので、計11人に乗ってもらって出航した。(遣米使節史料集成第5巻・ブルック「横浜日記」

 *通説「アメリカ人を乗せてやった」は誤り

The following statements are also in keeping with the myth of "Kanrin-maru," a ship that has been a symbol of national prestige since the Meiji era.
"We were asked to take some Americans back to the U.S. with us at this time. ("Bakumatsu-shi")
...This is also incorrect. It was the Japanese who asked Captain Brooke to board the Kanrin Maru.

It was arranged by Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura, a naval magistrate, and
Townsend Harris, the first U.S. Consul General to Japan, who were concerned about the Japanese alone on the voyage and they asked Captain Brooke to accompany the Japanese. Brooke then said that he would have no confidence on his own unless he takes 10 of his men with him, so a total of 11 Americans were brought aboard and the ship set sail.
(Brooke's "Yokohama Diary," Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860, Volume 5)

* The common belief that "We gave the Americans a ride" is incorrect.

「一応すべて日本人が軍艦を動かして・・・サンフランシスコまで行った」(『幕末史』)
 …「(大嵐の中で)動ける日本人は2,3名」あとはほとんど米水兵が操縦をしてくれたのが史実。(遣米使節史料集成第5巻・ブルック「咸臨丸日記」


「ポウハタン号で西海岸に到着し、汽車に乗ったんでしょうか、ワシントンまで行き」(『幕末史』)
 …
大陸横断鉄道はなかったからパナマへ行きパナマ鉄道で大西洋側へ出た。(遣米使節史料集成)

*巻末の「参考文献」に「遣米使節史料集成」(全7巻)が入っていないから、こういう文章になるのかもしれないが、基本的な資料を見ないまま出来上がった本が『幕末史』とすれば他の部分も心配になる。

"Only the Japanese operated the warships ... arrived at San Francisco" (Bakumatsu-shi)
The historical fact is that "only a few Japanese were able to work (in the storm)" and most of the rest work were done by U.S. sailors.
(Brooke's "Yokohama Diary," Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860, Volume 5)

"The Powhatan arrived at the West Coast and the Japanese delegation took a train, I suppose, to Washington" ("Bakumatsu-shi")
The truth is that there was no transcontinental railroad, so the delegation went to Panama on board the Powhatan and took the Panama Railroad out to the Atlantic side. (Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860)

* This may be because the book does not include the "Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860 (7 volumes) in the "References" section at the end of the book. If the book, "Bakumatu-shi," was completed without looking at such basic materials, the other parts of the book are worrisome.


関連ページ 
 「修身教科書が作った咸臨丸神話」をご覧下さい。
See the related page, The "Kanrin Maru Myth created by Shushin textbooks"

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
郵政省  おかしな記念切手
目次に戻る
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications - Strange Commemorative Stamps
                                       Back to the Table of Contents


◇日米修好通商百年記念のおかしな記念切手 

 「日米修好通商百年記念」(1960・昭和35年)に発行された切手が、遣米使節が乗っていない「咸臨丸」の絵だった。

 これでまた「遣米使節が咸臨丸で渡米した」と誤解する日本人が増えたことだろう。

◇ Strange commemorative stamps for the 100th anniversary of The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the U.S. and Japan


A stamp issued in 1960, Showa 35, to commemorate the Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan showed a picture of the "Kanrin Maru," which did not carry the envoys to the United States. This must have increased the number of Japanese who misunderstood that the envoys came to the U.S. on the "Kanrin Maru.


  
▲「日米修好通商百年記念」と銘打って売りだされた切手シート
The stamp sheet marketed under the title "Centennial of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce
Between the United States and the Empire of Japan



左:ホワイトハウスで批准書を渡す遣米使節
右:遣米使節が乗らなかった咸臨丸  

Left: The Japanese envoys handing over the instrument of ratification at the White House
Right: The Kanrin Maru, on which the Japanese envoys did not board  

咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
京都 霊山歴史館
                                             目次に戻る
 
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                           Ryozen Museum, Kyoto, Japan    Back to the Table of Contents
幕末維新ミュージアム霊山(りょうぜん)歴史館(京都)では・・・
 The Bakumatsu Restoration Museum Ryozen History Museum (Kyoto)...

展示の中の
◆勝海舟の紹介文で
「咸臨丸の指揮をとり太平洋を横断しアメリカを視察した…」

…と船酔いで寝たきりだった勝麟太郎が「指揮をとって太平洋を横断」したことになり、サンフランシスコから帰ってきただけの話を「アメリカを視察した」という誇大なお話に導いている。

◆「遣米使節人数及図」の説明では
「一行の一部はパナマを経てワシントンへと向かった…」

と、本隊の遣米使節団を「
(勝海舟)一行の一部」扱いにして、勝海舟を持ち上げるために遣米使節の地位逆転矮小化を図っていました。

歴史をゆがめる「歴史館」の記述と言えます。(平成22年)

In the introduction of Kaishu Katsu in the exhibition, there is the following sentence:
"He took command of the Kamrin Maru, crossed the Pacific Ocean and inspected the U.S..."

Thus, (Kaishu) Rintaro Katsu, who was seasick and bedridden during the voyage, "took command and crossed the Pacific," leading the story of his mere return from San Francisco to the exaggerated story of his "tour of America."

◆ The following sentence appears in the description of the "Envoys to America:"
"A part of the delegation went to Washington via Panama..."

In this way, the main mission to the U.S. was treated as "part of (Kaishu Katsu's) delegation," in order to lift up Kaishu Katsu in an attempt to trivialize the status reversal of the mission to the U.S. We can say that this is a "history museum" description that distorts history. (2010, Heisei 22)

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
国立公文書館

                                                       目次に戻る
 
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
                                    National Archives of Japan       Back to the Table of Contents
 国立公文書館(東京・竹橋)では
平成30年春の特別展 江戸幕府最後の闘い ―幕末の文武改革―
◆「船譜に掲載された幕府軍艦」の説明プレートに
「幕府遣米使節を乗せて太平洋を往復した咸臨丸」

とありました。

   2018平成30年3月31日~5月6日まで展示
     
(5月2日に視認・アンケート用紙に記入してきたが読んでもらえたか…)

◇ The National Archives of Japan (Takebashi, Tokyo) made a mistake.

Spring Special Exhibition 2008: The Last Struggle of the Edo Bakufu - Civil and Military Reforms at the End of the Edo Period
◆ The explanation plate of "Shogunate Warships Listed in Ship Records" reads as follows:
"The Kanrin Maru, which carried the Shogunate's envoys to the U.S. and back across the Pacific Ocean."

Needless to say, it was the U.S. warship Powhatan that carried the envoys to the U.S., not the Kanrin Maru.    

Exhibited from March 31 until May 6, 2018, Heisei 30     
(I filled out a questionnaire form on May 2, but I am not sure if they read it or not...)

 咸臨丸病の日本人:事例集
木村摂津守喜毅の副使説


                                              目次に戻る
 
Japanese with Kanrin Maru Disease: A Case Study
The theory that Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy
                                           Back to the Table of Contents

 木村摂津守喜毅(咸臨丸提督・軍艦奉行)を副使とする説は誤り
The theory that Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura (Admiral of the Kanrin Maru and warship magistrate) was a vice-envoy is incorrect.

  
*はじめにお断りしておくが、木村摂津守喜毅は人柄・挙措動作・人格いずれも尊敬に値する武士で、咸臨丸が北太平洋で沈まなかったのはブルック大尉・ジョン万次郎及び、二人を乗船させることにこぎつけた木村摂津守喜毅のおかげであり、咸臨丸ではこの三人がさわやかな物語を展開している。以下は、後世の人が「史実を曲げてことを論ずる」のは将来に歴史を誤る恐れがあると考え、公開する。

 
近年、「木村喜毅は副使」あるいは「正使はポウハタン号で、副使は日本で仕立てた船咸臨丸・・・と決まった」とする説が、いくつかの書やHP・ブログで見られるようになりました。これも咸臨丸病の一つと思われます。

* First of all, I would like to say that Settunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a samurai worthy of respect in terms of his character, behavior, and personality. It is thanks to Kimura and, Captain Brooke and John Manjiro, whom Kimura brought on board, that the Kanrin Maru did not sink in the North Pacific, and these three men unfolded a refreshing relationship on the Kamrin Maru. I believe that the future of history may be at risk if future generations "bend the historical facts" and discuss the matter," so I release the following information.

In recent years, theories that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice-envoy" and "It was decided that the official envoy would go on the Powhatan, and the vice envoy would go on the Kanrin Maru provided by Japan...." have been found in several books, websites, and blogs. I think they are also symptoms of the Kanrin Maru disease.

例えば
「軍艦奉行木村摂津守」土居良三(中公新書1994年平成6年)
「木村喜毅は副使」説の根源はこの本か。著者は咸臨丸乗組員の子孫。
『咸臨丸海を渡る』土居良三(未来社1992年平成2年)(中公文庫1998年)…
「副使木村喜毅」「副使の乗る船が咸臨丸」説の始まりか・第6回和辻哲郎文化賞が泣く錯誤

For example,
"Settsunokami Kimura, Warship Magistratei" by Ryozo Doi (Chuko Shinsho 1994, Heisei 6): I wonder if this book is the root of the theory that "(Settsunokami) Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy"? The author is a descendant of the Kamrin Maru crew.
◆ "Kanrin Maru Umi wo Wataru (Kanrin Maru crossing the Pacific Ocean)" Doi Ryozo (Miraisha 1992 Heisei 2, also Chuko Bunko 1998 Heisei 10): I wonder if this book is the root of the theories that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy" and "The ship which the vice envoy got on board was the Kanrin Maru"? If so, this is an error that will degrade the 6th Tetsuro Watsuji Cultural Award.

『咸臨丸の絆』宗像善樹(海文社2014平成26年)・・・上記『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』を参照したらしく
「木村喜毅が副使」「遣米副使」「木村は副使といえども正使の新見と同格の御役目……」として格上げを図っている。咸臨丸乗組員の子孫の著者は、最近その誤りを認め、日本図書館協会選定図書となっていたのを辞退している。帯で歴史ドキュメントとしているが、創作会話が入っているのでドキュメントとはいえない。フィクションと見るべき。

・文中で
「小栗が…代表と見られた」という錯誤の文章は、以前のウィキペディアからのコピペ転用であろう。

・文中で「勝麟太郎が『帰国するときもアメリカ人の手助けが必要だ』といいだして、5名を雇って帰国した…。」としているが、前々年安政五年九月に案内役の米人を雇う話は始まっていて、前年安政六年十二月段階で「帰国の際も米人を雇う」ことが決まっていた。勝麟太郎は無関係な話で勝本人も言ってないことを勝の功績話にして、勝海舟神話を水増し。
 
・とはいえ、木村喜毅の温厚真摯な人柄に接して心酔するようになった福沢諭吉との「絆」がいきいきと描かれた好著。

◆ "Kizuna of Kamrin Maru (The Bond of the Kanrin Maru)" Yoshiki Munakata (Kaibunsha, 2014 Heisei 26): The book seems to have refered to the above-mentioned "Settsunokami Kimura, Warship Magistratei," and attempts to elevate Kimura's status by stating that "Yoshitake Kimura was the vice envoy," "vice envoy to the United States," and "Kimura, even as vice envoy, was of the same rank as Shinmi, the official envoy." Recently, the author, a descendant of a Kamrin Maru crew member, admitted his error and declined to have the book selected by the Japan Library Association. The book is described as a historical document in the belly band, but it should be considered a fiction, not a document, because it contains creative conversations.

The erroneous sentence in the text, "Oguri was seen as the representative figure of ..." is probably a copy-and-paste diversion from an earlier Wikipedia article.

In the text, it is written that "Rintaro Katsu said, 'we need American help when we return to Japan,' and they hired 5 americans for the return voyage." However, the plan to hire Americans to serve as guides had already been discussed in September of 1858 or Ansei 5, 2 years before, and it had been decided in December of Ansei 6, the previous year, that "Americans would be hired for the return trip as well. This is a story that Rintaro Katsu had nothing to do with, and Katsu himself did not say anything about it, thus adding to the myth of Kaishu Katsu. 

Nevertheless, this is a good book that vividly depicts the "bond" between Yoshitake Kimura and Yukichi Fukuzawa, who came to be fascinated by Kimura's warm and sincere personality.


「清く美しい流れ-日本人の生き方を取り戻す-」田口佳史(PHP出版)
「遣米副使として……」遣米使節と咸臨丸一行を混同しているように読める。
木村芥舟(ウィキペディア)
「木村は咸臨丸の司令官として遣米副使を命じられ…」・・・最近削除されている。
木村摂津守喜毅(ニコニコ大百科)…小見出しが遣米副使本文に 使節副使として渡
国際派日本人養成講座咸臨丸に乗り組む副使として任命されたのが…木村摂津守喜毅」「正使はポーハタン号で…副使日本で別の船を仕立てて送り出すことになった、。それが咸臨丸…」
 

「ハワイスペシャリスト検定公式ガイド」(エイ出版社)「使節団副使の木村摂津守喜毅」とありますこの件以外は要点をわかりやすくまとめてあり、ハワイを知るのに良い検定ページ。

…この他のブログにもたくさん見受けられます。.
 
咸臨丸子孫の会のHPは「史実を正しく伝える」ことを目的としている会で、さすがに「木村摂津守喜毅が副使」という記述はありません。木村喜毅が
「遣米使節に任ぜられた」という記述はあります…→近年見当たらなくなりました。

- "A Clear and Beautiful Stream: Restoring the Japanese Way of Life" by Yoshifumi Taguchi (PHP Publishing): "As a vice envoy to the U.S. ......" It reads as if the author is confusing the envoys to the U.S. with the Japanese people on board the Kanrin Maru.
- Kaishu (Yoshitake) Kimura (Wikipedia): "Kimura was ordered to be the vice envoy to the U.S. as the commander of the Kanrin Maru..." This is not correct, but the sentence has been deleted.
- Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura (Nico Nico Encyclopedia): The subheading is "Vice envoy to the U.S." and the text says "Kimura went to the U.S. as vice envoy to the U.S." That is not correct.
- International Japanese Training Course: "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was appointed as the vice envoy to board the Kanrin Maru." "The official envoy will go on the Powhatan and the vice-envoy will go on board a different ship prepared by Japan. That was the Kanrin Maru." They are not correct.

- "The Official Guide to Hawaii Specialist Certification" (Ei Shuppansha): "Settsunokami Yositake Kimura, the vice envoy of the mission." The book is a good examination guide to Hawaii, with a clear summary of the main points, except for this part.

We have found many other blogs with mistakes about Settsunokami Yositake Kimura.


The website of the Society of the Kanrin Maru Crew Descendants
aims to "correctly convey historical facts," and as expected, there is no mention of "Settsunokami Yositake Kimura was appointed as a vice envoy." There used to be a description that Yoshitake Kimura was "appointed as an envoy to the U.S.," but I can no longer find it there in recent years.

実際はどうなのか―史実に照らすと

幕府が遣米使節副使として任命したのは村垣淡路守範正ひとりだけ。

以下がその文書

 己未九月十三日
                          新見豊前守
                            村垣淡路守

                            小栗 又一
亜墨利加国へ使差遣候節新見豊前守正使村垣淡路守は副使小栗又一は立合之心得ニ可罷在事
《『幕末維新 外交史料集成 第一巻』禮儀門 P235


このほかに副使に任ぜられたものはいない。


◆ What actually happened - in light of historical facts, the truth is as follows:

The Shogunate appointed only one person, Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, as vice envoy to the U.S. The following is the letter of appointments of the three envoys.  

September 13th, 1859               

To: Buzennokami Shinmi, Awajinokamki Muragami, Mataichi Oguri (Bungonokami)

We will send Buzennokami Shinm as the official envoy, Awajinokamki Muragami as the vice envoy, and Mataichi Oguri as the censor to the United States of America.

<“Bakumatsu Ishin Gaiko Shiryo Shusei (The Collection of Historical Materials on the diplomacy at the end of the Tokugawa Period), Vol. 1” Reigimon p. 235">

No other person was appointed to the post of the vice envoy.

     左から
・副使村垣淡路守範正
・正使新見豊前守正興
・目付小栗豊後守忠順


From left to right,
Awajinokamki Norimasa Muragami, the vice envoy
Buzennokami Masaoki Shinmi, the official envoy,
Bungonokami Tadamasa Oguri, the censor

では
◯木村摂津守喜毅は使節に万一の時の代理役だから副使と同格、とする説 はどうか。

 
万一の時の代理役についてはこの後追加の指令があって、その内容は次の1,2,3三人となる。
1.「目付小栗又一は正使・副使に支障があった時は一人でも代行すべし」  という下知があった。
2. さらに咸臨丸出帆直前に追加指令があって、木村摂津守喜毅(咸臨丸)が代理役を命じられている。
3. 2,と同時に追加指令で、勘定組頭森田岡太郎(ポウハタン号)が使節(三使)も木村喜毅も支障が生じた場合の代理役を命じられている。

How about the theory that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura is of the same rank as the vice envoy because he would be a deputy in case of emergency with the three envoys?

Additional commands were later given regarding deputies to act in the event of any eventuality with the envoys. The contents of this order were as follows:

1. "Mataichi Oguri, the censor, should act as a deputy in the event of any trouble with the official or vice envoys.
2. In addition, an additional order was issued just before the departure of Kanrin Maru, and Settsunokami Yositake Kimura (abord the Kanrin Maru) was ordered to act as a substitute.
3. At the same time, an additional order was issued to Okataro Morita (aboard the Powhatan), the head of the account group, to act as a substitute in the event of any problems with the three envoys or with Yoshitake Kimura.


以上を総合すると、幕府は

1. 正使・副使に支障が生じた場合は目付小栗又一が代わって任務を果たすよう指示している。
2. 三使(正使・副使・目付)共に病気等で不都合が生じた場合は、(咸臨丸の)軍艦奉行木村摂津守喜毅がその代理を務めること。
3. 三使(ポウハタン号)も木村摂津守喜毅(咸臨丸)も支障が生じた場合は勘定組頭森田岡太郎(ポウハタン号)がその代理となることを指示している。


 
*1、2、3 のいずれも副使という正式な職名は与えていない。
  
代理だから副使と同等=副使、とする論理は「副使にしたい」だけの、後世の無理な話。もしこの論理が通るなら、1,2,3の順序でまず小栗忠順が副使あるいは正使とさえ言えることになる。

 *多くの書籍やHP・ブログで
「木村摂津守喜毅が副使」「副使が乗る船が咸臨丸」としているのは誤りと言える。

◆ Taken together, the Bakufu gave the following three commands.

(1) In the event that the official envoy or the vice envoy is unable to perform their duties, Mataichi Oguri, the censor, will take their place.
(2) In the event that all three envoys (the official envoy, the vice envoy and the censor) become ill or otherwise unavailable, Settsunokami Yositake Kimura, the warship magistrate, (aboard the Kanrin Maru) shall act in their place.

(3) In the event that neither the three envoys (aboard the Powhatan) nor Settsunokami Yositake Kimura (aboard the Kanrin Maru) are unavailable, Okataro Morita (aboard the Powhatan), the head of the account group, will act in their place.  

* None of the three commands gave the official title of vice envogy to Kimura. The logic that "because he is a deputy, he is equivalent to a vice envoy" is simply an impossible story by people of later generations who want Kimura to be a vice envoy. If this logic holds, we can say that Tadamasa (Mataichi) Oguri is a vice envoy or even the official envoy.

* We can say that many books, websites, and blogs state that "Settsunokami Yositake Kimura was the vice envoy" and "the ship on which the vice envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru," but they are all incorrect.


◆「木村喜毅が副使」説の根源はどこかー
たとえば咸臨丸乗組員の子孫という著者のこの本
『咸臨丸海を渡る』土居良三(未来社1992平成2年)(中公文庫1998) と
『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』土居良三(中公新書1994平成6年)   に

「正使に万一の支障があった場合、代るべき副使を乗せるための船という名目で、その副使に軍艦奉行を当てることとした」
「別船に乗る
副使
「別船を
副使の乗る船としたのは・・・」
「正式に遣米
副使として咸臨丸に搭乗

What is the origin of the theory that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy"?

For example, let's look at these books written by an author who is an descendant of the crew of the Kanrin Maru:
◆ "Kanrin Maru Umi wo Wataru (Kanrin Maru crossing the Pacific Ocean)" Doi Ryozo (Miraisha 1992 Heisei 2, also Chuko Bunko 1998 Heisei 10)

◆ "Settsunokami Kimura, Warship Magistratei" by Ryozo Doi (Chuko Shinsho 1994, Heisei 6)

In these books, the following is written:
"They prepared the Kanrin Maru in the name of a ship to carry a vice envoy to take the place of the official envoy in case of any trouble with the envoy."
"The vice envoy to board a separate ship."

"The reason for assigning a separate ship to carry the vice envoy..."
"... officially boarded the Kanrin Maru as vice envoy to the U.S."

        

としているのが初出と思われる。
喜毅の従者長尾幸作の子孫土居良三は好著と言われる同書になぜこのような記述をしたのだろう。
 
中公新書『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』の問題点
①副使は正使に支障があった場合のみの臨時代理役、と副使の意味が矮小化され、正式に遣米使節副使として任ぜられている外国奉行村垣淡路守範正の存在を無視、あるいは気づいていない。

②咸臨丸派遣の目的がポウハタン号に乗っている遣米使節の護衛あるいは随行という名目であったのを、「副使が乗る船」として格上げを図っている。と同時にポウハタン号に正式な副使(外国奉行)村垣淡路守範正が乗船していることを無視、あるいは気がつかない。

③軍艦奉行木村喜毅が「遣米使節に任ぜられた」、と格上げを図っている。
遣米使節は正使・副使・目付の三名で、随行した団員たちの間では「三使」「三公」と呼ばれている。咸臨丸には「使節」は乗っていない。

These are thought to be the first appearances of the theory that Yoshitake Kimura was the vice-envoy. Why did Ryozo Doi, a descendant of Kimura's follower Kosaku Nagao, make such a statement in this book, which is considered a good book?

Problems with "Settsunokami Kimura, Warship Magistratei" by Ryozo Doi (Chuko Shinsho):

(1) The meaning of "vice envoy" is downplayed by stating that a vice envoy is a temporary deputy only when there is a problem with the official envoy, ignoring or failing to notice the presence of Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, a foreign magistrrate, officially appointed as a vice envoy on the mission to the U.S.
(2) The purpose of dispatching the Kanrin Maru was to escort or accompany the Japanese envoys to the U.S. aboard the Powhatan, but it was upgraded to "the ship on which the vice envoy was to board. At the same time, it ignores or is unaware that the official vice envoy, Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki (foreign magistrate), is aboard the Powhatan.
(3) The author attempts to upgrade Kimura's status by stating that Yoshitake Kimura, a warship magistrate, was "appointed as an envoy to the U.S. The three envoys to the U.S. were the official envoy, the vice envoy, and the censor, and were called "Sanshi" (three envoys) and "Sanko" (three lords) by the members of the delegation that accompanied them. There were no "envoys" on board the Kanrin Maru.


さらに詳しい史料はHP 「木村摂津守喜毅は副使」説は誤り 
 をご覧ください。史料で説明しています。           (2016平成28年8月)

For more information, please see the website "'Settsunokami Yositake Kimura was a deputy ambassador' is wrong." Historical documents explain the matter.           (August 2016 Heisei 28)

PDF版:『会津人群像』36号(2018平成30年3月)
歴史を誤らせる勝海舟神話・咸臨丸神話 村上泰賢
・・・「対馬事件はオレが陰で解決してやった」、という勝海舟のホラ話がいまだに信じられています。

通説「帰国を希望していたアメリカ人を乗せてやった」は誤り

PDF version: "Aizujin Gunzo" No.36 (March 2018 Heisei 30) 
The Myth of Kaishu Katsu and the Myth of Kanrin Maru that Misleads History by Taiken Murakami: "I solved the Tsushima Incident in the shadows," is an empty boast by Kaishu Katsu, which is still believed by people.

The common belief that "We gave rides to the Americans who wanted to return to the U.S." is false.

 
小栗上野介が遣米使節での見聞を活かして行なった日本近代化の業績を知るには、戦前の咸臨丸・勝海舟への過大な評価を拭い去ることからはじめなければならない。随行船の咸臨丸はいわば、横綱に従う太刀持ち露払いだから、いつまでも立ちふさがっていては横綱が表に出られない。(2009平成21年7月)

To understand the achievements of Kozukenosuke Oguri in modernizing Japan based on his experiences during his visit to the U.S. as an envoy of the Japanese delegation, it is necessary to dispel the overvaluation of the Kanrin Maru and Kaishu Katsu from the prewar era. The accompanying ship, the Kanrin Maru, was, so to speak, a Tachimochi or Tsuyuharai (sumo wrestlers who precedes Yokozuna, a grand champion, when he makes his ceremonial entrance into the ring), so the Yokozuna (the Japanese envoys) could not appear in front of the spectators if the preceding wrestler kept standing in the way forever.    (July 2009 Heisei 21)
  

このページをご覧になったあなたは

咸臨丸の絵を教科書からはずす会 
の会員資格があります。

会員の責務:教科書や副読本の「遣米使節の説明に使われている
(遣米使節が乗っていない)咸臨丸の絵」をはずし、代わりに遣米使節のワシントン海軍造船所見学記念の写真を載せよう!、と主張する。

会員の特典:「勝海舟は遣米使節ではない」「木村摂津守喜毅は副使ではない」「勝海舟はサンフランシスコから帰った」「遣米使節は咸臨丸には乗らなかった」「小栗上野介のワシントン海軍造船所見学から横須賀造船所建設が発想された」「富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹」・・・などの知識をひけらかすことができます。

会費:無料

Reading this page, you are eligible for membership of the Association for Removing the Kanrin Maru from School Textbooks.

Member's responsibility: Advocate removing the picture of the Kanrin Maru, which is falsely used to explain the Japanese mission to the U.S., from high schools’ history textbooks and supplementary readers, and putting the photo of the mission's visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard in its place.

Member's privilege: You can reveal your knowledge such as "Kaishu Katsu was not an envoy to the U.S.," "Kaishu Katsu returned from San Francisco," "The mission to the U.S. did not board the Kanrin Maru," "The construction of the Yokosuka shipyard was conceived from Kozukenosuke Oguri's visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard," etc.

Fee: Free



関連ページ         ●遣米使節の旅 Related pages
●Tour of the Japanese envoys to the U.S.
     咸臨丸
遣米使節三船…咸臨丸ではない
リーフレット『遣米使節三船』・・・教科書の「遣米使節の説明」に使われている咸臨丸の絵をはずすため作成
修身の教科書が作りだした咸臨丸神話・・・国定教科書の〈歴史〉でなく〈修身〉教科書で教えた勝海舟・咸臨丸が始まり

咸臨丸の冒険を成功させたブルック大尉(リンク)・・・ブルック大尉の「咸臨丸日記」を克明に記載。航海の実態がよく分かる。

富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹…突然変異でうまくいったのではない。歴史には継続性がある。遣米使節の成果がここに花開いている。


遣米使節の行程:日本人初の世界一周の行程表
ブルック大尉:咸臨丸が沈まなかったのはブルックとジョン万次郎のおかげ
大統領の記念メダル:使節と従者全員に金・銀・銅のメダルが贈られた
小栗忠順の通貨交渉:フィラデルフィアで「ノー」といって進めさせた通貨実験は

世界一周をした名主・佐藤藤七:権田村名主が従者として世界一周
玉蟲左太夫:仙台藩士の見た世界は新鮮だった
遣米使節小栗の従者:小栗忠順の従者9名
遣米使節従者・三好権三…島根の人だった
遣米使節の業績・・・1本のネジくぎを持ち帰った小栗
横須賀明細一覧図を読む…図から読み取れる産業革命の地横須賀は、遣米使節の成果

日の丸を国旗に決めた遣米使節…船印だった日の丸を国印に決めた
帆船模型作家・岡崎英幸さんに感謝状…おかげで「遣米使節3船」がそろいました
トミーポルカ…アメリカで大人気となった少年通訳立石斧次郎の音楽
遣米使節とアメリカの酪農…初めてアイスクリームを食べた日本人
■Bridge of Hope(english)…JEWL発行の本で小栗上野介の業績紹介
<Kanrin Maru> 
Three ships for the Japanese mission to the U.S.: The Kanrin Maru was not used for the mission.
Leaflet in Japanese and English, "Three ships that carried the mission to the U.S. and around the world": We have made the leaflet to advocate removing the Kanrin Maru from school textbooks.
The Kanrin Maru myth created in Shushin textbooks: The myth of the Kanrin Maru was not taught in the national textbook (history), but in the "Kaishu Katsu and the Kanrin Maru" section of Shushin textbooks.


Captain John Mercer Brooke on the successful adventure of the Kanrin Maru (Link): Captain Brooke's "Kanrin Maru Journal” is clearly described. It gives a clear picture of the actual conditions of the voyage.

The Tomioka Silk Mill is a "sister" of Yokosuka Shipyard: It was not a mutation that worked. There is continuity in history. The accomplishments of the Japanese envoys to the United States are blossoming here.

Itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the United States: The Itinerary of the first Japanese to go around the world
Captain John Mercer Brooke: The Kanrin Maru did not sink thanks to Brooke and John Manjiro.
President's medals: Gold, silver, and bronze medals were presented to the envoys and all the followers.
Tadamasa Oguri's Currency Negotiations: The currency experiments that made Oguri say "No" in Philadelphia.

Toshichi Sato, a village master who traveled around the world: Gonda village master traveled around the world as a follower of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri
Sadayu Tamamushi: The world that a Sendai clan samurai saw was fresh.
Oguri's Followers on the Mission to America: Nine Followers of Tadamasa Oguri
Gonzo Miyoshi, a follower of Tadamasa Oguri in the mission to the U.S.: He was from Shimane prefecture.
Achievements of the Japanese mission to the U.S.: Oguri brought back a screw nail.
Reading the "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka": We can read from the drawing that Yokosuka was the place of the Industrial Revolution in Japan, and that it was the result of the envoys to the United States.

The Japanese envoys to the U.S. decided to use the Hinomaru as the national flag: They chose the Hinomaru as the national flag of Japan, which was originally a ship's seal.
A letter of thanks to Mr. Hideyuki Okazaki, a model sailing ship artist: Thanks to him, we have three ships of the mission to the U.S.
Tommy Polka: Music of Onojiro Tateishi, a boy interpreter who became very popular in the U.S.
Mission to the U.S. and American Dairy Farming: The first Japanese to eat ice cream
Bridge of Hope (English): JEWL (Japanese Executive Women's League) in Los Angeles praises the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they have published.

「ポウハタン号の町・伊豆下田」 ■"Izu-Shimoda, the town of the Powhatan"