横須賀造船所(HP東善寺)  幕末明治日本の産業革命の地―横須賀明細一覧図を読む
  Yokosuka Shipyard (Tozenji Temple) ●● Site of the Industrial Revolution in Late Edo and Meiji Japan - Read the Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka




横須賀造船所はテーマパークだった
横須賀明細一覧図を読む 

Yokosuka Shipyard was a theme park
Read the Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka

 横須賀造船所は
「蒸気機関を原動力とする
日本最初の総合工場」
だった…

 従来、日本の工業の原動力は人力-牛馬-水車までだった。横須賀製鉄所ははじめから蒸気機関を原動力としていたから「蒸気機関を原動力とする日本最初の総合工場」で、日本の産業革命の地といえる。司馬遼太郎が「日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(「三浦半島記」)と書いたのは、このことを指す。
The Yokosuka Shipyard was "the Japan's first comprehensive factory powered by steam engines"...

Traditionally, the driving force of Japanese industry has been human power, cattle and horses, and even water wheels. The Yokosuka Ironworks was "Japan's first integrated factory powered by steam engines" and can be called the site of Japan's industrial revolution. This is what Ryotaro Shiba meant when he wrote that it was "the source of all modern engineering in Japan"
(Miura Peninsula Chronicles). 
 「軍港」以前の横須賀を読む
 
横須賀は初めから軍港ではない。「軍港」になったのは明治末年から。それ以前の横須賀をこの一覧図で見ると「産業革命の地・横須賀」であることが読めてくる。

What was Yokosuka before it became a military port?

Yokosuka was not a military port from the beginning. It became a "military port" at the end of the Meiji era. If you look at this old map of Yokosuka drawn before it became a military port, you can understand that Yokosuka was "the land of the Industrial Revolution."
 横須賀明細一覧図
The Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka
▲横須賀明細一覧図
この図は明治16年版で、明治18年8月にも販売したいとお届け済みのもの。
(東善寺所蔵)
大きさ:A3版くらい
発行:日本橋山本良助
発売:横須賀汐留町鈴木卯兵衛
This picture map is the Meiji 16 edition. (Owned by Tozenji Temple)
Size: about A3 size
Publisher: Ryosuke Yamamoto, Nihonbashi
Published by Ryosuke Yamamoto, Nihonbashi, Tokyo
 ◇横須賀明細一覧図は明治12年版14年版16年版21年版がありこの図からいろいろなことが読み取れる。

◇市販していた横須賀明細一覧図…見学を終えた後この一覧図をお土産として買えたから、現在でも全国の旧家から出てくる。
◇この絵をよく読むと、壮大な工場群を擁した一大産業革命の地であることが見えてくる。



 ◇The Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka was published in several versions of the 12th year of Meiji, 14th year of Meiji, 16th year of Meiji, and 21st year of Meiji, from which you can read various things.

The maps were sold on the market... After finishing the tour in Yokosuka, people could buy the maps as souvenirs, so the maps are still discovered in old houses all over the country.

◇ If you read this picture-like map carefully, you will see that Yokosuka was the site of a major industrial revolution, with a magnificent factory complex.

■秘密の軍港ではなかった
 
富士登山や、熱海、湯河原の帰り、丹沢の大山詣りの帰りなどに、当時最大の工業施設を見学しようと
この施設の動いているさまを見るために、内外国人を問わず、一日に参観する者数百人
 
 
ここは日本近代化を目の前で実感できる一大テーマパークで、外国人も見物に来ていた。だからこのような絵図が毎年作られ、お土産として買われて全国に持ち帰られた。横須賀は秘密の軍港基地ではなかった。
 のちに大正昭和に入ると各国との軍備拡張競争が強くなり、民間施設が充実してきたこともあってしだいに軍専用となって、秘密基地化していった。
■ It was not a secret military port.

 
Hundreds of people of Japan and even foreigners came to see the largest industrial facility in Japan of the time on a single day.
Many of them were on their way back from climbing Mt. Fuji, visiting Atami or Yugawara, or visiting Mt. Oyama in the Tanzawa area.

  This was a theme park where people could experience the modernization of Japan right in front of their eyes, and foreigners also came to see it. That's why these drawings were made every year and bought as souvenirs to take back home across the country. Yokosuka was not a secret military port base.  

Later, in the Taisho and Showa eras, competition with other countries for military expansion became stronger, and civilian facilities were enhanced, so it gradually became a military-only base and became a secret base.


■三十数戸の「一漁村に造船所を造ったから」、市になった
<横須賀市に造船所を作ったのではない。造船所を造ったら人が集まってきて市になったのである>

Yokosuka became a city after a shipyard was built in a fishing village with only about 30 houses.
(The shipyard was not built in a city. Yokosuka became a city since many people came to live there after the shipyard was built.)

 
タイトル下の解説文▲ には、次のように書かれている。

「この地はむかしは僅か三十数戸の海辺の一漁村
(元町ふきん)であった。ひとたび造船所を設けてからわずか10数年でこれほど隆盛の小都会となったのは、実に驚くべき開明の進歩である」

 幕府ははじめ長浦湾に設ける予定で、フランス人技師を案内し、測量したところ「もう少しいい場所がないか…」、というので横須賀湾を見てもらったら、海深・地形・土質とも造船所に最適の場所とわかった。

 横須賀村に造ったから横須賀市になった。造船所を長浦湾に造っていれば「長浦市横須賀」、房総半島にでも造っていれば今ごろここはたぶん、「浦賀市横須賀」だったろう。
The explanation below the title is as follows:

This place was once a fishing village (the Motomachi area) by the sea with only thirty or so houses. The fact that it has become such a prosperous little city in only a decade or so since the shipyard was established is truly an amazing development of civilization enlightenment.

The Tokugawa Shogunate had initially planned to build the shipyard in Nagaura Bay, but when a French engineer was guided to the site and surveyed, he asked if there was a better place to build the shipyard, so he looked at Yokosuka Bay, which turned out to be the best place for the shipyard in terms of sea depth, topography and soil.

The shipyard was built in Yokosuka Village, which became Yokosuka City. If the shipyard had been built in Nagaura Bay, it would have been called Nagaura City, and if it had been built on the
Boso Peninsula, it would probably have been part of Uraga City by now.



  
 ■フランス人技師が横須賀に決めた理由は

1、太平洋に対して横須賀湾の入口が逆の北向きのため荒波を防いで海面が穏やか。

2、海の深さが20m以上あって造船に適している。

…浅いと、完成した船を海に入れる「進水式」で船を入れたショックが海底から跳ね返って、船をひっくり返す。
横須賀は大きな空母もそのまま横付けできる海の深さがある。例:九州の佐世保は大きな空母は入港できず、沖に停めてあとはボートで陸と連絡している。


3、
土が土丹岩(どたんがん)という粘土質で、粘りがあって割れにくいので、ドック建造に適している。…土丹岩は水飴が固まったような岩で、ヒビが伝わらないからいっぺんに割れる恐れがない。実物は品川区立歴史館(大森貝塚の近く)に展示されている。

4、山が迫っているから、風を防ぎ、造船に適している。
…和船は盥タライのような平底型。洋式船は断面がハート形で、造船の時は竜骨(キール)だけで接地し、あとは棒で支えて作業するから強風で倒される心配がある。

 


 ■The reasons why the French engineer chose Yokosuka

1. The entrance to Yokosuka Bay is facing north, the opposite direction of the Pacific Ocean, which prevents rough waves and makes the sea surface calm.

2. The depth of the sea is more than 20 meters, making it suitable for shipbuilding. ...If it were shallower, the shock of putting the ship into the sea during the "launching ceremony" would bounce off the seabed and tip the ship over. In Yokosuka, the sea is deep enough to accommodate a large aircraft carrier. For example, in Sasebo, Kyushu, large aircraft carriers are not allowed to enter the port, but are parked offshore and connected to land by boat.

3. The soil is clay called dotangan, which is sticky and hard to crack, making it suitable for dock construction. Dotangan is a rock that looks like a hardened syrup, so there is no danger of it cracking all at once because cracks cannot be transmitted. The actual rock is on display at the Shinagawa Ward History Museum (near Omori Kaizuka).

4. The proximity of the mountains prevents wind, making it suitable for shipbuilding. ...Japanese ships are flat-bottomed like a basin. Western-style ships are heart-shaped in cross-section, and during shipbuilding, only the keel is grounded, and the rest is supported by sticks, so there is a risk of falling over in strong winds.

 横須賀製鉄所の特徴三つ
  
 
1、慶應2年から蒸気機関で工業製品を製造していた先進性
2、鉄製品、木工製品、ロープ、などあらゆる工業製品を製作する総合工場
3、モノづくりの原点は人づくりー「黌舎」「機関学校」が人材を育てた


 東京大学工学部生は、機関学校で現場実習することが単位として義務付けられていた。当時機械工学の原点・最先端が造船所で、日本にここ以上の機械工学を学べる現場は存在しなかった。現在でも、大きなトンネルをいっぺんに丸く掘り抜く大きなシールドマシン
(トンネルを掘削する大きな工具)は造船所で作られている。
 ちなみにいまは飛行機工学、特に宇宙工学が最先端。
  Three characteristics of the Yokosuka Ironworks
1. The innovation spirit of the plant, which had been manufacturing industrial products with steam engines since Keio 2.

2. A comprehensive factory that manufactured all kinds of industrial products, including iron products, wood products, and ropes

3. The starting point of manufacturing is human resource development: the Kosha School and the engineering school nurtured human resources.


 Students of the University of Tokyo's Faculty of Engineering were required to attend
the engineering school for on-site training. At that time, shipyards were the origin and cutting edge of mechanical engineering, and there was no better place in Japan to learn mechanical engineering. Even today, large shield machines (large tools for digging tunnels) that dig large tunnels all the way round are made in shipyards. By the way, airplane engineering, especially space engineering, is at the forefront now.

詳しくは以下のページをご覧ください。
横須賀造船所三つの特徴 …横須賀製鉄所(造船所)の特徴三つを見ると、日本の産業革命の地であることがわかる。

For more information, please see the following page.
Three characteristics of the Yokosuka Shipyard ... Three characteristics of the Yokosuka Ironworks (shipyard) show that it was the site of Japan's industrial revolution.


 ◆以下、「横須賀明細一覧図」の各部分を切り取って説明します

 Hereafter, we explain the Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka by cutting it into some pieces.
 
         ▲製綱所 
長さ270m。「糸へん」に注意。ロープ工場である。日本の工業ロープ製造はここから始まった。しだいに民間の製綱技術が上がり、明治22年に「民間からの買い付けで済む」としてここは操業停止した。二段ある明かり取りの窓の構造は、富岡製糸場の置繭所も同じ。
 
Rope factory:
It is 270 meters long. This is where Japan's industrial rope manufacturing began. The rope-making technology of the private sector gradually improved, and the factory was shut down in 1889 because it could be purchased from the private sector. The structure of the two tiers of windows to catch the light is the same as that of the Tomioka Silk Mill.

  
世界遺産・富岡製糸場の東・西の置繭所原型建物
 この製綱所は富岡製糸場
の置繭所建物によく似ている。


 それも道理で、富岡製糸場の建物は明治4年に横須賀造船所の建築担当の技師が設計図を引き、横須賀造船所の建物の設計図を基に描いてすべてをたった50日で仕上げたという。 実際の建築は技師のバスチャンが富岡に派遣されて建築した。バスチャンは、横須賀からフランス語で書かれた設計図の文字やメートル法の寸法を読める日本人大工を数人連れてゆき、現地の大工を指揮して仕事を進めた。
The model building for the Tomioka Silk Mill

 This rope factory looks very similar to the building of the Tomioka Silk Mill. That's not surprising because the building of the Tomioka Silk Mill was designed by a French engineer who had been in charge of construction at the Yokosuka Shipyard. Edmond Auguste Bastien, the engineer, was sent to Tomioka to do the actual construction in 1871. He drew up the plans based on the plans of the Yokosuka Shipyard and finished the whole thing in only 50 days. For the construction, Bastien brought several Japanese carpenters with him from Yokosuka who could read the French texts and metric measurements of the blueprints, and supervised the local carpenters to carry out the work.
 
▲ 製帆所 
 当時の蒸気船は石炭を節約してふだんは風で走っていた。だから蒸気機関の他に帆もロープも必要。従来日本には西洋式の強い帆布はなかったから、ここで織っていた。
  Sail Making Factory:
In those days, steamships usually ran on the wind to conserve coal. Therefore, sails and ropes were necessary. Japan did not have strong Western-style canvas, so it was woven here. 
 
          ▲電気灯 
電気灯(アーク灯)が明るくともって、夜業が行われていた。大阪紡織よりも3年早い。
Electric lights:
Electric lights (arc lights) were lit brightly, and night work was conducted. They used the electric lights three years earlier than Osaka Boshoku did. Also, telephone connection was available with telegraph lines.
 
蒸気帆船 
この当時は蒸気機関を備えていても「ふだんは帆で走る」帆船の時代。たくさんのロープが使われた。
 
  Steam sailing ship :
At that time,even if it was equipped with a steam engine,it was an era of sailing ships that"usualy run on sails". Many ropes were used.
 
 ▲鍛造と旋盤 
ネジくぎをはじめ船の鉄の部品とそれを扱う工具はここや「練鉄所」で作られた。工作機械を動かす原動力はすべて蒸気機関であった。蒸気機関のシンボル煙突に注意、ここが「日本産業革命の地」たるゆえんである。
Forging and Lathing: The iron parts of the ship, including the screw nails, and the tools to handle them were made here and in the "iron refinery". Steam engines were the driving force behind all the machine tools. The symbolic smokestack of the steam engine is a reminder of the fact that this is the "place of Japan's industrial revolution."  
 
            ▲構内の鉄道 
造船所内の運搬作業には馬車鉄道が使われていた。
横須賀線開通はこの6年後(明治22年)である。
製罐所
(左奥)
 蒸気機関の釜や窯を造る
製飾所(中央)
 飾り物といわれる各種の細かな金物から食堂の鍋釜まで造る
  Railroads on premises: Horse-drawn railroads were used for transport work in the shipyard. The Yokosuka Railway Line was opened six years later (1889). The cannery on back left makes kettles and kilns for steam engines. The metal ornaments factory in center produces a variety of small metal ornaments as well as pots and pans for the cafeteria. 
 
          ▲組立所 
錬鉄所などで製造した部品を完成させる工場。煙突は機械の運転動力に蒸気機関が使われていたことを示す、富岡製糸場に共通する近代工業のシンボル。
Assembly plant:
A plant where parts manufactured at a wrought iron works are completed. The chimney indicates that a steam engine was used to power the operation of the machine, a symbol of modern industry common to the Tomioka Silk Mill.

 
                 ▲船台造船小屋 
船台は、さまざまな部品を集めて船に組み立てる。雨天でも作業ができるよう屋根をかけてあった。
Shipbuilding stock and shed:
The shipbuilding stock is dug into the ground at an angle to prepare for launching, and various parts are collected and assembled into the ship. It was roofed over so that work could be done even in the rain.
 
 
       ▲黌舎(こうしゃ) 
定員60人で5年間フランス語や数学、物理、造船技術を学ぶ。日本最初の職場内学校はフランス語で始まった。
醫室
(いしつ)
フランス人医師サヴァチェが職場内の医療にあたった。また工事現場で象の化石を採取し、のちにナウマン象と命名された。
Kosha School:
It is with a capacity of 60 students, where students study French, mathematics, physics, and shipbuilding technology for five years. Japan's first on-the-job school began in French.
 
Medical Room
French doctor Savache was in charge of medical care in the workplace. He also collected elephant fossils at the construction site, which were later named Naumann elephants.
 
                  ▲機関学校 
東大工学部に匹敵する内容の工業学校で、学費無料のほか小遣いまでもらえたから全国から優秀な若者が殺到し、受験の予備校までできた。中島飛行機を興した中島知久平も明治40年にここを卒業。
  Engineering School:
The school, comparable to the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Tokyo, offered free tuition and pocket money, which attracted many talented young people from all over Japan. Chikuhei Nakajima, the founder of Nakajima Aircraft Company, graduated from this school in 1907. 
 
 
              ▲錬鉄所 
ひな形や設計図によって鉄を鍛鉄する。火床40あまり、スチームハンマー8基が音を立てて部品を造っていた。製鉄所ではない。
Wrought Iron Works: Forging iron according to models and blueprints. Forty or so fire pits and eight steam hammers were making noise as they made parts. This is not an ironworks.  
 
                    ▲職工学校 
技手になるための学校と、ここに入るための予備校や塾があった
手前は時計塔。15分遅刻で欠勤となった。職工は時計に合わせて働き、定時就労が日本人に定着していった。
 Institute of Technology: There was this institutel to become a journeyman and also there were a preparatory school and a cram school to enter it. In the foreground is the clock tower. If a student was 15 minutes late, the person would have to miss work. Artisans worked according to the clock, and regular work hours were firmly established among the Japanese.
 
          ▲クレーン 
輸入された部品機具を陸揚げする30dクレーンは、造船所建設の最初に設置された。

 このクレーンの形状を見ると語源が「鶴」であることがよく分かる。
Crane:
A 30-ton crane for unloading imported parts and equipment was installed at the beginning of the shipyard construction.  

Looking at the shape of this crane,it is clear that the etymology is "crane"
 
              ▲電信局 
明治初年から電信線が引かれ、電信器が使われていた。
Telegraph Station:
Telegraph lines were installed from the beginning of the Meiji era, and telegraph equipment was used. 
 
  東京・横浜から定期船
工事を始めたときから、横浜ー横須賀間に定期蒸気船を走らせて、資材や人員運搬にあてた。
 絵図の右下に東京など各地への里程表があり、横浜から1日5回の定期蒸気船がでていたことがわかる。東京見物、伊勢参り、富士登山、大山参りのあとの帰りに横浜から蒸気船で横須賀へ来ると、旅館に泊り、翌朝造船所を案内してもらって見物することが出来た。
Liner Service from Tokyo and Yokohama:

From the start of the construction, regular steamers were run between Yokohama and Yokosuka to transport materials and personnel.

In the lower right corner of the drawing, there is an itinerary to various places including Tokyo, which shows that there were regular steamship services from Yokohama five times a day. People came to Yokosuka by steamship from Yokohama on their way back after visiting Tokyo, Ise, Mt. Fuji, or Oyama, they stayed at inns and were guided to the shipyard the next morning.

一日に数百人の見物客

 「
船渠(せんきょ・ドック)及び諸機械の運転効用を観(み)んが為内外国人を問わず来観する者一日数百人の多きに至る……」(『横須賀明細一覧図』明治16年・解説)
 「
港内の壮観たるものは造船所の構造にして、ドック、船台の模様より諸機械運転の作用等を縦覧(じゅうらん)せんが為内外国人の来遊するもの日々数百人の多きに至る」(竹内馬渓『横須賀港独案内』明治21年発行)

珍しい機械設備や電信、電気灯、機械仕掛けの工作状況をひと目見ようと、外国人も含めて1日に数百人の見物客が押し寄せる一大テーマパークが横須賀だった。軍専用の軍港とされ秘密基地のようになっていったのは、日露戦争後の明治40年代になってからのこと。 「軍港都市」といういかめしさは明治末から大正昭和の軍拡競争時代の産物で、もともとは日本の工業近代化のモデル工場であったことがよくわかる。

Hundreds of visitors a day

 "Hundreds of visitors a day, regardless of nationality, from home or abroad, come to see the docks and the operation of various machines. ......"
("Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka", 1881, Commentary)  

The most spectacular thing in the harbor is the structure of the shipyard, and the number of people from Japan and abroad who come to see the docks, the ship's deck, and the operation of the various machines is several hundred a day.
(Bakei Takeuchi, Yokosuka Port Guide, published in 1888)

Yokosuka was a major theme park where hundreds of visitors, including foreigners, would come to see the unusual machinery and equipment, telegraphs, electric lights, and mechanical devices at a glance. It was only after the Russo-Japanese War in the 1907s that Yokosuka became a military port and a secret base for the military. The sternness of "military port city" was a product of the arms race from the end of the Meiji era to the Taisho and Showa eras, and it is clear that the city was originally a model factory for Japan's industrial modernization.

 
               ▲横浜 
明治5年から新橋ー横浜間に汽車が走った。近代工場の横須賀見物には横浜のほか、東京からも定期船が出ていた。
 Yokohama:
Trains began to run between Tokyo Shinbashi and Yokohama in 1872. To visit Yokosuka with the modern factory, there was a regular boat service from Tokyo as well as Yokohama.
  
 
 宿屋 いまのヴェルニー公園あたりの宿屋に泊まった客は、朝飯がすむと8時から番頭に案内されて「御場所」と呼ばれた造船所内を見物した。 Inns:
Guests staying at the inns in the area of today's Verney Park were shown around the shipyard, called "Gobasho," by the watchman from 8:00 a.m. after breakfast.

 
 造船台 かつての花形職場で、ここから日本近代化のシンボルとしての船が次々に作られ、昭和30年代に造船大国となる基礎がここにあった。いまのダイエーの裏あたり。   Shipbuilding Stocks:
The shipyard was once quite a popular place to work, where ships were built one after another as a symbol of Japan's modernization and the basis for the country becoming a shipbuilding powerhouse in the 1950s. It was located behind the current Daiei store.
 
 
        ▲妓楼 
大滝町一帯に20数軒あまりあって、芸妓が200名くらいいた
Brothels:
There were more than 20 brothels and about 200 geikos in the Otaki-cho area.  
 
        ▲長浦 幕府がはじめにフランス人技師を案内した長浦湾。ここに造船所を造っていればいまごろは横須賀市ではなく「長浦市」になっていたろう Nagaura:
This is Nagaura Bay, where the Shogunate first guided French engineers. If the shipyard had been built here, it would have been called "Nagaura City" instead of Yokosuka City by now. 

 横須賀造船所は外国船も修理するところ
イギリス・アメリカ・ロシア・フランス…の船も修理した
 「(つね)に英米の商船、露仏の鉄艦、大となく小となく修理工作を依頼して踵(きびす)を接す。誠に東洋一の工場と謂(いい)つべし」(『横須賀繁盛記』明治21年)

 秘密厳守の「軍港都市横須賀」というイメージだけで横須賀を捉えてはいけない。近代造船・修理の先進工場としての横須賀を見直すことが大切。
They repaired ships from England, America, Russia, France, and so on.

"We were always asked to repair British and American merchant ships, Russian and French ironclads, both large and small, that arrived one after another. It should truly be called the best factory in the East."
("Yokosuka Prosperity Records", 1888) 

Yokosuka should not be viewed only in terms of its image as a "military port city" that was strictly confidential. It is important to reevaluate Yokosuka as an advanced factory for modern shipbuilding and repair.
 誰でも買えた「横須賀明細一覧図」
Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka that anyone could buy.

誰でも買えた絵図
 横須賀はもとはオープンな工場だったから、この絵図もはじめは誰でも買うことが出来た。よく売れたから何度も再版されている。しだいに軍拡競争の時代になって、情報の秘密化がはかられると、絵図の出版が規制され、秘密基地化していった。戦時中は、国鉄横須賀駅からの海辺(いまのヴェルニー公園あたり)は高い板塀で造船所を隠してあって、そのまま敗戦を迎えたから「軍港都市横須賀」のイメージをぬぐえない市民が多い。
この絵図から横須賀市の歴史を読むと「日本工業化の源泉・横須賀」が理解できる。


横須賀製鉄所では製鉄をしていなかった。
 
明治4年に「横須賀造船所」と改称するまでここは「横須賀製鉄所」だった。この「製鉄所」は「鉄製品を作る」「鉄で造る」所という意味だった。だから横須賀では鉄鉱石から鉄を取り出す意味の第1次製鉄はしていなかった。すでに製鉄された銑鉄を買って(はじめは外国から)、工作をしていた。
 明治4年に製鉄所の意味が「鉄を製する」所、と変わって現在に至っている。このことを踏まえないと下記*2のような錯覚をする学者が出る。

Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka that anyone could buy  
Because Yokosuka Shipyard was originally an open factory, anyone could buy these drawings at first. Because they were sold well, it has been reprinted many times. Gradually, as the era of the arms race progressed and the secrecy of information was sought, the publication of the drawings was restricted and the city became a secret base. During the war, the seaside area (around today's Verney Park) from the JR Yokosuka Station was covered with high board fences to hide the shipyard, and since the city was defeated as it was, there are many citizens who cannot get rid of the image of "military port city Yokosuka." If you read the history of Yokosuka City from these drawings, you can understand "Yokosuka, the source of Japan's industrialization."

Yokosuka Ironworks was not engaged in iron
manufacturing


It was called "Yokosuka Ironworks" until it was renamed "Yokosuka Shipyard" in 1871. This "ironworks" only meant a place that "made iron products" or "made with iron." In other words, Yokosuka did not conduct primary iron making by extracting iron from iron ore. Instead, pig iron that had already been made was bought (initially from abroad) and crafted.  

In the early Meiji era (1868-1912), the meaning of the word "ironworks" was changed to "a place to make iron," which it is today. If this is not taken into account, some scholars may make the following mistake*2.
 ■横須賀造船所は「幕府を強化するだけの軍需工場」、と矮小評価する学者
 「日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(司馬遼太郎『街道を行く―三浦半島記』)となったこの横須賀造船所を、たんなる軍事工場と矮小評価する学者もいる。たとえば、次のような論評だ。

小栗上野介は、……横須賀に軍需工場を作って軍艦を作るという構想を持っていた。そうして、徳川の新しい政権を作ろうというわけだが、これは実にぞっとする構想である。結局はフランスの属国のようになる(*1)ことだから。」「(略)・・・昔から、落城のときには、相当な英雄が出るものだが、小栗はそれに値する。彼は、最後に横須賀に大きな溶鉱炉かなんか建てる(*2)のだが、そこでやむを得ず家を売り渡すが、蔵をつけて売り渡す(*3)ところがせめてものプライドだといっている。あくまでも徳川の権威を重んじたわけである。」・・・・・谷沢永一(『封印の近現代史』ビジネス社2001年)より

*1、「結局はフランスの属国のようになる」・・・なぜいきなりこういう言いがかりめいた結論が出るのか不思議ですが、関連ページの「四国を担保にした話」や「横須賀製鉄所(造船所)の借款説」をあわせてお読みになれば、それが誤解であるとわかります。

*2、「大きな溶鉱炉」・・・とありますが、じつは横須賀製鉄所は鉄鉱石から鉄を取り出すという意味の製鉄所ではありません。第一次製鉄で作られた銑鉄・鋳鉄が運び込まれ、加工され製品化される「鉄製品を製する所」という意味ですから、「大きな溶鉱炉」はありませんでした。
 造船所内にあったのは銑鉄、鋳鉄を再度溶かして製品化するための小さな反射炉でした。
明治4年になって「造船所」と改称し、製鉄所は現代の意味の「鉄を製する所」になっていきました。

*3、小栗上野介が栗本鋤雲に語った「いずれ土蔵つきの売家になる」というセリフは、いずれ徳川家の政権はもたないと明治維新の3年前に見通していた江戸っ子旗本のシャレ。他の人には「土蔵付売り据え」とも言ってます。

歴史の現場や史実を踏まえないまま、「大きな溶鉱炉かなんか建てる」などと、史実から目をそらせた想像話を展開して「ぞっとする構想」と関西大学名誉教授が評価するのは、いかがなものか。


 
  The Yokosuka shipyard was "a munitions factory that only strengthens the Shogunate," says a scholar who trivializes the shipyard.

The Yokosuka Shipyard, which became "the source of all modern engineering in Japan"
(Ryotaro Shiba, "On the Road: A Chronicle of the Miura Peninsula"), has been trivialized by some scholars as a mere military factory. For example, the following commentary is one of them:



"Kozukenosuke Oguri had a plan to build a munitions factory in Yokosuka to make warships. By doing so, he wanted to create a new Tokugawa regime, which is really a horrible idea. In the end, Japan would be like being a vassal state of France." "... in the past, when a castle fell, there were always heroes, but Oguri deserved it. In the end, he built a big blast furnace or something in Yokosuka (*2), where he had no choice but to sell his house, but he sold it with a storehouse (*3), which he said was a point of pride at least. The fact that he sold the house with the storehouse attached (*3) was at least a sign of his pride. He placed importance on the authority of the Tokugawa. From ・・・
Eiichi Tanizawa ("Fuin-no Kingendaishii," 2001, Business-Sha)

*1. "In the end, it will be like a French vassal state..." It is strange why such an accusatory conclusion is suddenly drawn, but if you read the related pages, "The story of using Shikoku as collateral" and "The Yokosuka ironworks (shipyard) loan theory," you will understand that this is a misunderstanding.

*2. There is a phrase "a large blast furnace." However, the Yokosuka Ironworks was not an ironworks in the sense of extracting iron from iron ore, but rather a place where pig iron and cast iron produced in the first stage of iron making were brought in, processed, and made into products.  

What the shipyard had was a small reverberatory furnace for re-melting pig iron and cast iron into products.

The name of Yokosuka Ironworks was changed to "Yokosuka Shipyard" in 1871, while, in general, "ironworks" began to mean a "place to manufacture iron from iron ore" in the modern sense.

*3. The line that Kozukenosuke Oguri said to Joun Kurimoto, "Eventually, we will have a house for sale with a storehouse," is a joke by an Edokko Hatamoto who foresaw three years before the Meiji Restoration that the power of the Tokugawa family would not last. Oguri also mentioned to others, "Dozo-tsuki-Urisue" which meant "a house for sale with a storehouse."

How is it that a professor emeritus of Kansai University evaluates "a horrifying concept" by developing an imaginary story that distracts from historical facts, such as "building a big blast furnace or something," without taking into account historical sites and historical facts?

おススメの本
歴史読本別冊
「横須賀」 
2011平成23年11月発行 1000円(税共)  いいガイドブックです。
Recommended Book
Rekishi Dokuhon Bessatsu "Yokosuka"
Published November 2011 at 1,000 yen (tax included)
 
軍港の街」というサブタイトルは大衆向けであろうが、初めから軍港ではなかったから、当ホームページの趣旨とはそぐわない。編集にこのページを見て活かしてくれたら、もっといいタイトルが付けられたことだろうと、残念に思う。

いずれ横須賀製鉄所の見直しがひろがって「日本産業革命の街」と認識される日が来ることを願っている。
The subtitle "The City of Military Ports" may be aimed at the masses, but it doesn't fit the purpose of this website because it wasn't a military port from the beginning. It is a pity that a better title would have been given if the editor had taken a look at this page of our website and made use of it.

I hope that the review of Yokosuka Ironworks will eventually spread, and the day will come when it will be recognized as "the city of Japan's industrial revolution."
 
関連ページ
横須賀造船所の借款説:約定書の読み違いで濡れ衣
横須賀製鉄所 三つの特徴…この特徴から日本産業革命の地であることがわかる
小栗の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした:幕末世情混乱の中の根無し草
横須賀造船所のページ
「土蔵つき売家」の横須賀造船所のページ
レンガのページ:やっと入手できた、横須賀で作られたレンガ
森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・
技師長フランソワ・レオンス・ヴェルニー:横須賀市のページ(リンク)
勝海舟の「海軍500年説」は:「海舟日記」の信憑性ゆらぐ
東郷元帥の謝辞:日本海海戦の勝利は小栗さんのおかげ・・・
幕末の構造改革:ネジをお土産にした小栗上野介

   
咸臨丸
「木村摂津守喜毅は副使」「副使が乗る船が咸臨丸」という説の誤り…近年広まった副使説、根源はどこか

Related Pages:
The theory that the Yokosuka ironworks were built with borrowed money: It is a theory made by a writer who misread the historical materials and it is incorrect.
Yokosuka Ironworks: Three Features… These features show that Yokosuka is the site of Japan's industrial revolution.
Falsely accued Oguri - he used Shikoku and Ezo as collateral:A baseless theory in the turmoil of the late Edo period
Yokosuka Shipyard Page
◇ Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"
The bricks made in Yokosuka, which we could finally get.
Advocacy of forest protection and cultivation: Shipbuilding requires a lot of wood...
Chief Engineer Francois-Leonce Verney: Yokosuka City page (link)
Kaishu Katsu's "500 Year Navy Theory": The authenticity of "Kaishu's Diary" wavers
General Togo's Acknowledgement: Victory in the Battle of the Sea of Japan was thanks to Mr. Oguri...
Structural reforms at the end of the Edo period:Kozukenosuke Oguri brought a screw as a souvenir.

 <Regarding Kanrin Maru>

■There have been false theories recently that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a deputy emissary" and that "the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru." Where are the roots of them?