|小栗上野介の濡れ衣（HP東善寺） ● ● 横須賀製鉄所の借款説を糺（ただ）す
Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri (Tozenji Temple) ● ● Verification of the misleading loan theory about the Yokosuka Ironworks
Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri
(Misunderstanding of the word of "beshi"?)
|There was a theory in some quarters that Kozukenosuke Oguri used loans
from France to build the Yokosuka Ironworks to strengthen the shogunate
at a time when the finances of the shogunate were in dire straits, and
some accused him of selling out the country to France.
Professor Naosuke Takamura of the University of Tokyo questioned this, and in "Rediscovering the Economy of the Meiji Era" (Hanawa Shobo, 1995) and "Bakumatsu Ishin Ronsyu 2: Kaikoku" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2001), he argued that the amount of money owed to France related to the Yokosuka ironworks, which had been handed over from the shogunate to the new government, was "tens of thousands of yen at most. It was not a loan, but an unpaid amount.
|＜What's the source of the loan theory?>
There were two things:
1. Slander by Kaishu Katsu:
"The shipyard in Yokosuka was a compliment of the French (to Japan). It was a compliment when they asked Japan to borrow their money. You can almost understand why Napoleon would go out of his way to be kind to Japan, can't you?" (Kaishu Katsu, "Kaishu Goroku")
2. Takuji Shibahara's "The Opening of the Country"
In modern times, it seems to have started with the following part interpreted by Takuji Shibahara, "According to the agreement." It seems that he was trying to reinforce the above words of Kaishu Katsu.
"According to the agreement of the Naval Arsenal issued at the end of January 1865, they were to build an ironworks, a shipyard, and two ship repair yards in Yokosuka and a small steelworks for training in Yokohama in four years and the total construction cost of the project of $2.4 million will be borrowed from France, $600,000 per year."
(Takuji Shibahara, Professor Emeritus of Osaka University, "The Opening of Japan," Japanese History 23, Shogakukan, 1975)
|History of Japan 23 "The Opening of Japan", Takuji Shibahara, Shogakukan, 1975|
＜The agreement in question>
The part of the treaty in question, on which Mr. Shibahara's interpretation is based, is as follows: (Takuji Shibahara's "The Opening of the Country" does not include the text of the treaty, so it is easy for people to disregard it on the basis of what the scholar says.)
The blue text in the above agreement can be translated as follows:
However, after delivering this agreement (to the French government), the Shogunate will keep the right amount of 600,000 dollars ready to be handed over at any time, and will also make sure that there will be no hindrance to the (600,000) dollars to be paid annually for the next four years.
* In Kaishu's "History of the Navy" (The Complete Works of Kaishu Katsu, p. 279, Keiso Shobo), the sentence "... the yakujosho aitodokisorou uewa (when the agreement arrives),..." should be written with "ke" instead of "ki". In the original (National Diet Library, 1889), there are no declensional kana ending.
The difference between "todoki" and "todoke":
"Todoki" is an expression which can be used by the French government who received the agreement. Meanwhile, "todoke" is an expression which can be used by the shogunate, the issuer of the agreement, to say, "I have delivered it to the French government. Therefore, "todoke" is more appropriate from the flow of the sentence.
In the "History of Yokosuka Naval Shipyard" (published in 1915), there is no mention of the loan.
"History of the Navy" by Kaishu Katsu
(Ministry of the Navy, 1889, National Diet Library)
第一、借款契約につきものの担保、期限、利子などについて、この書類はまったく触れていないのである。横須賀製鉄所建設には四年間毎年６０万ドルが必要であり、建設をフランスに委託した幕府が、毎年６０万ドルを「取揃」えてフランス側に「納」めることを約束した文書としか解しようがない・・・」 （高村直助 『再発見・明治の経済』・塙書房・１９９５年）
In his book "Rediscovering the Meiji Economy" (Hanawa Shobo, 1995), Professor Naosuke Takamura questions Mr. Shibahara's interpretation of the loan theory as follows:
Mr. Shibahara read the byline as "the (French) government pays (osameru*) 600,000 dollars in loans," but it is strange to say that the one who gives the loan is the one who "osameru" for it.
Note*: The word "osameru" means "to pay." However, this Japanese expression has a nuance that the debtor should use, but not the creditor should.
In the first place, this document was delivered to the French Minister by Rohjuu (highest-ranking officers) and Wakadoshiyori (2nd highest-ranking officers) of the Shogunate, so it would be natural to assume that the subject of the proviso was also the Shogunate.
Besides, the document makes no mention of collateral, term, interest, etc., which are usual in loan contracts. The construction of the Yokosuka ironworks would require $600,000 annually for four years, and the document can only be interpreted as a promise by the shogunate, which had entrusted the construction to France, to "collect" $600,000 annually and "pay" it to the French side..."
(Naosuke Takamura, Rediscovering the Meiji Economy, Hanawa Shobo, 1995)
「横須賀横濱両製鉄所経費一 洋銀二百四十万ドル 一箇年60万ドルずつ4箇年分仏国政府に約定せし目当高内
＜Interpretation of "beshi (should)">
I (Taiken Murakami, chief priest of Tozenji Temple), like Professor Takamura, interpret this part as above and below.
"However, once we have delivered this agreement (to the French government), the Shogunate will keep the right amount of $600,000 in reserve so that it can be handed over at any time, and we will also make sure that there will be no hindrance to the $600,000 as the side to be paid every year for the next four years.
Mr. Shibahara interpreted the word "beshi" after the word "torisoroeoku" as "should," meaning "(you) should prepare," or more strongly as "(you) must," meaning." " However, it is more natural to interpret it as the will of the shogunate, the issuer of the agreement, to "prepare the money."
Ref. The meaning of the word "beshi" in the high school course (link)
Incidentally, the following words are part of a report sent by French Ambassador Paul Claudel to France on September 30, 1922, the day after the unveiling of the busts of Verney and Kozukenosuke Oguri in Yokosuka.
"In spite of the poor financial condition of the shogunate, Oguri promised to finance the construction of the shipyard, which he considered to be of utmost importance, without delay."
(From Paul Claudel's The Lonely Empire: Japan in the 1920s)
It is needless to say that the French side (Claudel) understands here that "he promised to provide without delay" is based on the written agreement that the shogunate gave to the French side.
＜After all, how was the payment made by the new Meiji government?>
The construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks had been carried out by the Shogunate, making annual payments, but in the fourth year of construction before completion, the Meiji Restoration took place and the new government took over. The following is a list of foreign-related unpaid bills that were passed on to the new government:
"The amount of gold appropriated for the Nagasaki Ironworks, the Yokosuka Ironworks, lighthouses, the Mint, the Bureau of Mines, warships, and other payments related to foreigners."
In addition, there are other items such as weapons and munitions ordered by the former shogunate but not paid for and not yet delivered.
So how much of this is purely related to the construction of the Yokosuka Works? Professor Takamura thinks that:
"The new government paid back separately more than 140,000 yen, and this amount included the payments made by the Waran Shosha. If there was any unpaid amount related to the construction of the Yokosuka Steel Works, it would be included in this amount, but it would probably be only a few tens of thousands of yen at most. The amount is too small to assume that the loan of $2.4 million actually existed and that the new government paid the unpaid amount.
<$1,508,000 had already been paid, and the remaining amount was $831,500...> (History of Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Hara Shobo)
On April 1, 1867, leap year of Keio 4, the new Meiji government dispatched Mr. Michiki Higashikuze, Commissioner of the Kanagawa Court, to receive the facilities at Yokosuka and Yokohama from the old shogunate to the new government. At this time, the following remarks were made regarding the settlement of the handover:
"Yokosuka and Yokohama Ironworks Expenses:
$2.4 million, $600,000 per year for four years, the equivalent of the amount promised to the French government.
O f which,the amount of 1,508,424 dollars 41 cents was for the purchase price of machinery and goods, the cost of shipbuilding, construction, and earthwork, and the wages of French employees and the wages of workers and laborers from the start of construction in August of 1865 (the first year of Keio) to March of this year (1968 or Boshin).
The amount of 831,575.59 dollars was the estimated cost from now until the completion of the project. However, due to the rising cost of living since the start of the ironworks , there was an estimated shortfall of about one year's worth of expenses, or about $600,000."
(" History of Naval Shipyards in Yokosuka, Japan" Hara Shobo)
... As we see here, it is estimated that "with the rise in prices since the start of construction, another year's worth of budget, or around $600,000, is needed.”
|Naosuke Takamura's "Rediscovering the Economy in the Meiji Era," published by Hanawa Shobo, 1995)
In the book, Takamura wrote:
In the end, apart from the Shimonoseki reparations and other loans that became debts as a result of burned-out payments, there was no actual borrowing of funds by the shogunate from France. Therefore, my conclusion is that the maximum amount of the debt to France that was passed on to the new government was no more than $550,000, mainly for the cost of weapons and munitions that were unable to be paid due to the collapse of the Shogunate.
To be sure, the Yokosuka Ironworks (shipyard) never had a "completion" date. It is said to have been in full operation from 1869, the 2nd year of the Meiji Era (1869-1912), but there is no date for its completion, since the facilities that had already been built in the Keio Era (1868-1912) were successively put into operation using steam engines as the driving force, and then expanded by maintenance and replenishment. There is no time frame for completion. (Taiken Murakami)
<A debate with Takashi Ishii on external pressure>
Mr. Shibahara argued that Japan at the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate was a "semi-colony" under foreign pressure, and cited the loan of the Yokosuka Shipyard as one of the proofs. However, Takashi Ishii says that the story of the Yokosuka loan, which should have been the basis for this argument, is "(Mr. Shibahara's) outrageous misunderstanding of the facts."
Reference: "Meiji Restoration and Foreign Pressure," Takashi Ishii (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1993)
<The Impact of the Loan Theory>
Some scholars who say, "Oguri might do something with France," or "Oguri might borrow money from France, give Hokkaido in exchange, and build a shipyard in Yokosuka..." ("Sealed Modern History," by Shoichi Watanabe and Eiichi Tanizawa, published by Business-sha, August 2001) , are likely to base their theories on this loan theory.
It has been about 40 years since Shogakukan published "Kaikoku" (History of Japan 23), but many other people must believe that "Kozukenosuke Oguri tried to protect the Tokugawa family even if he turned Japan into a French colony" based on this "ridiculous misunderstanding of the facts" of the loan theory. This is a complete falsehood.
(Dec. 8, 2004)
He arrived in Japan at the age of 29 to be the head of the Yokosuka Ironworks and worked in good faith on its construction.
Purchased from Rotterdam, the Netherlands at the end of the Edo period. It was in operation until 1997.
(Verney Memorial Museum, Yokosuka City)
◇Falsely accued Oguri - he used Shikoku and Ezo as collateral：A baseless theory in the turmoil of the late Edo period
◇Reading the "Yokosuka Detailed List" Chart： The city of Yokosuka, with its advanced facilities for modern industry, was crowded with visitors.
◇Yokosuka Shipyard Page
◇Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"
◇The bricks made in Yokosuka
◇Advocacy of forest protection and cultivation： Shipbuilding requires a lot of wood...
◇Kaishu Katsu's "500 Year Navy Theory"： The authenticity of "Kaishu's Diary" wavers