小栗上野介の濡れ衣(HP東善寺)  ●    横須賀製鉄所の借款説を糺(ただ)す      
Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri (Tozenji Temple)  ●  Verification of the misleading loan theory about the Yokosuka Ironworks


 

小栗上野介の濡れ衣
横須賀製鉄所の借款説は
誤り

(「べし」の誤認かー

 

Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri
The loan theory about the Yokosuka Ironworks
is
wrong

(Misunderstanding of the word of "beshi"?)


 小栗上野介は幕府財政窮乏の折にフランスからの借款(しゃっかん)で横須賀製鉄所の建設を進め幕府を強化しようとした、という説が一部にあり、あたかも小栗上野介がフランスに国を売ったかのように非難するむきもあった。

 このことに疑問を持った高村直助東京大学教授は検証し、『再発見・明治の経済』(塙書房・1995年)および『幕末維新論集2・開国』(吉川弘文館・2001年)で、幕府から新政府に引き継がれた横須賀製鉄所関連のフランスへの未払い金は
「せいぜい数万円ではないか」、それも「借款ではなく未払い金」と述べている。
There was a theory in some quarters that Kozukenosuke Oguri used loans from France to build the Yokosuka Ironworks to strengthen the shogunate at a time when the finances of the shogunate were in dire straits, and some accused him of selling out the country to France.  

Professor Naosuke Takamura of the University of Tokyo questioned this, and in "Rediscovering the Economy of the Meiji Era" (Hanawa Shobo, 1995) and "Bakumatsu Ishin Ronsyu 2: Kaikoku" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2001), he argued that the amount of money owed to France related to the Yokosuka ironworks, which had been handed over from the shogunate to the new government, was
"tens of thousands of yen at most. It was not a loan, but an unpaid amount.

<借款説のもとは>
 二つある
1、勝海舟の中傷
 「横須賀の造船所は、法蘭西
(フランス)人のお世辞さ。その金を借りて貰ふといふときのお世辞さ。ナポレオンが、何の訳で、わざわざ日本に親切にするか、大体その訳がわかりさうなものぢゃあないか。」(勝海舟『海舟語録』)

2、芝原拓自著『開国』  
 近代では芝原拓自氏が解釈したつぎの部分
「約定書によれば」から始まっている。上記の勝海舟の言葉に沿ってその補強を図ったと思われる。

 「慶応元(1865)年1月末に交付されたこの海軍工廠の約定書によれば、横須賀に製鉄所一・造船所一・修船場2、横浜に訓練用の小製鉄所一を四ヶ年で建設し、その建設費計240万ドルを年間60万ドルずつフランスに借款するというのである。」
(大阪大学名誉教授芝原拓自著『開国』日本の歴史23・小学館・1975)


<What's the source of the loan theory?>
There were two things:

1. Slander by Kaishu Katsu:
"The shipyard in Yokosuka was a compliment of the French (to Japan). It was a compliment when they asked Japan to borrow their money. You can almost understand why Napoleon would go out of his way to be kind to Japan, can't you?"
(Kaishu Katsu, "Kaishu Goroku")

2. Takuji Shibahara's "The Opening of the Country"
In modern times, it seems to have started with the following part interpreted by Takuji Shibahara,
"According to the agreement." It seems that he was trying to reinforce the above words of Kaishu Katsu.

"According to the agreement of the Naval Arsenal issued at the end of January 1865, they were to build an ironworks, a shipyard, and two ship repair yards in Yokosuka and a small steelworks for training in Yokohama in four years and
the total construction cost of the project of $2.4 million will be borrowed from France, $600,000 per year."     
(Takuji Shibahara, Professor Emeritus of Osaka University, "The Opening of Japan," Japanese History 23, Shogakukan, 1975) 
  
日本の歴史23『開国』芝原拓自
・小学館・1975
 
History of Japan 23 "The Opening of Japan", Takuji Shibahara, Shogakukan, 1975

 
<問題の約定書は>
 芝原氏の解釈の元になった約定書の、問題の部分は次のとおりです
(芝原拓自『開国』には約定書本文が記載されていないので、学者がそういうのだからと信用して読みすごしてしまうところです)

○横須賀製鉄所約定書
「・・・・・・・・・(省略)・・・・・・
一、製鉄所一箇所修船場大小二箇所造船場三箇所武器蔵及び役人職人等の役所共に四箇年にして落成の事
一、製鉄修船造船の三局取建諸入用総計凡高一箇年六十万ドルラル都合四箇年二百四十万ドルラルにて落成のこと
  
但フランス政府へ約定書相届候上は右の六十万ドルラル取揃置べく猶四箇年の間年々 納方ドルラル差支不申様可致事
…元治二丑年正月二十九日(4月から慶応元年)       
              水野和泉守   
              酒井飛騨守」
*約定書の全文を見たい方は『横須賀海軍船廠史』、『海軍歴史』、『横須賀百年史』および高村教授の『明治の経済』(塙書房・1995年)・『幕末維新論集2・開国』(吉川弘文館・2001年)などで参照して下さい。

上の青字部分】を訳すと
但し、(フランス政府へ)この約定書を届けたからは、右の60万ドルを(いつでも渡せるよう幕府は)取り揃えておきますし、なお、今後4ヵ年の間毎年納めるべき側として(60万)ドルに支障のないよう致すつもりです

となる。
*細かい話になるが『海軍歴史』
(「勝海舟全集13」279p・勁草書房)で「…約定書相届き候上は、…」と送り仮名「き」を入れているのは、「け」とすべきである。原本(国会図書館蔵・明治22年)には送り仮名はナシ。

「届き」と「届け」の違い
「届き」は(そちらに)届いたからには=フランス政府側を主体とする言い回し。
「届け」はこの約定書の発行人である幕府側を主体とした言い回しで「フランス政府へ届けましたからには」となる。−文章の流れからこちらが適切。

*『横須賀海軍船廠史』(大正4年発行)のどの部分を見ても、借款の話は出てこない。


<The agreement in question>
The part of the treaty in question, on which Mr. Shibahara's interpretation is based, is as follows: (Takuji Shibahara's "The Opening of the Country" does not include the text of the treaty, so it is easy for people to disregard it on the basis of what the scholar says.)


Agreement of Yokosuka Steel Works

...(omission)...
One ironworks, two ship repair yards (large and small), three shipyards, an armory, and the offices of officials and craftsmen are to be completed in four years.
The construction of the faciliteis for the three sectors of steelmaking, ship repair, and shipbuilding will be completed in four years at a total cost of 600,000 dollars per year and 2,400,000 dollars in four years in total.


However, after submitting a written agreement to the French government, the right amount of 600,000 dollars should be settled and there should be no difference in the amount of dollars to be paid each year for the next four years.

・・・ 29th day of the first month of 1865, the second year of the Genji era (April to the first year of the Keio era)                      Izuminokami MIzuno & Hidanokami Sakai
If you want to see the full text of the agreement, please refer to "History of Yokosuka Naval Arsenal", "History of the Navy", "Centennial History of Yokosuka", and Professor Takamura's "Economy of Meiji" (Hanawa Shobo, 1995) and "Bakumatsu Ishin Ronsyu 2: Kaikoku" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2001).

The blue text in the above agreement can be translated as follows:
However, after delivering this agreement (to the French government), the Shogunate will keep the right amount of 600,000 dollars ready to be handed over at any time, and will also make sure that there will be no hindrance to the (600,000) dollars to be paid annually for the next four years.

* In Kaishu's "History of the Navy" (The Complete Works of Kaishu Katsu, p. 279, Keiso Shobo), the sentence "... the yakujosho aitodokisorou uewa (when the agreement arrives),..." should be written with "ke" instead of "ki". In the original (National Diet Library, 1889), there are no declensional kana ending.

The difference between "todoki" and "todoke":
"Todoki" is an expression which can be used by the French government who received the agreement. Meanwhile, "todoke" is an expression which can be used by the shogunate, the issuer of the agreement, to say, "I have delivered it to the French government. Therefore, "todoke" is more appropriate from the flow of the sentence.

In the "History of Yokosuka Naval Shipyard" (published in 1915), there is no mention of the loan.
 
『海軍歴史』勝海舟編
・海軍省・明治22年・国立国会図書館

 
"History of the Navy" by Kaishu Katsu
(Ministry of the Navy, 1889, National Diet Library)

 
 
<読解の誤り>
この芝原氏の解釈した借款説に疑問を唱えて、高村直助教授は『再発見・明治の経済』(塙書房・1995年)で次のようにいう

「芝原氏は傍線部分を<(フランス政府が)六十万ドルラルを納める>と読んだわけであるが、借款を与えるほうが「納」めると表現するのは妙である。
 そもそもこの書類は、幕府の老中・若年寄がフランス公使に交付したものであるから、但書の主語も幕府であると解するのが自然というものであろう。
 第一、借款契約につきものの担保、期限、利子などについて、この書類はまったく触れていないのである。横須賀製鉄所建設には四年間毎年60万ドルが必要であり、建設をフランスに委託した幕府が、毎年60万ドルを「取揃」えてフランス側に「納」めることを約束した文書としか解しようがない・・・」
  (高村直助 『再発見・明治の経済』・塙書房・1995年)
<Reading Error>

In his book "Rediscovering the Meiji Economy" (Hanawa Shobo, 1995), Professor Naosuke Takamura questions Mr. Shibahara's interpretation of the loan theory as follows:


Mr. Shibahara read the byline as "the (French) government pays
(osameru*) 600,000 dollars in loans," but it is strange to say that the one who gives the loan is the one who "osameru" for it.

Note*: The word "osameru" means "to pay." However, this Japanese expression has a nuance that the debtor should use, but not the creditor should.

In the first place, this document was delivered to the French Minister by Rohjuu (highest-ranking officers) and Wakadoshiyori (2nd highest-ranking officers) of the Shogunate, so it would be natural to assume that the subject of the proviso was also the Shogunate.  

Besides, the document makes no mention of collateral, term, interest, etc., which are usual in loan contracts. The construction of the Yokosuka ironworks would require $600,000 annually for four years, and the document can only be interpreted as a promise by the shogunate, which had entrusted the construction to France, to "collect" $600,000 annually and "pay" it to the French side..."

(Naosuke Takamura, Rediscovering the Meiji Economy, Hanawa Shobo, 1995)

<「べし」の解釈>
私(住職村上泰賢)も、高村教授と同じくこの部分を上記及び下記のように解釈する

「但し、(フランス政府へ)この約定書を届けたからは、右の60万ドルを(いつでも渡せるよう幕府は)取り揃えておきますし、なお、今後4ヵ年の間毎年納めるべき側として(60万)ドルに支障のないよう致すつもりです」


*「取揃置べく」の「べし」を
芝原氏は「取り揃えて置かなければならない」という当然・義務、あるいはもっと強く「取り揃えておきなさい」という命令に解釈したわけだが、
ここは約定書発行者である幕府側の「取り揃えておきます・そのつもり」という意志と解釈するのが自然である。
*高校講座「べし」の意味(リンク)

〈参考〉

ちなみに、下の言葉は
横須賀においてヴェルニーと小栗上野介胸像除幕式が行われた翌日、1922大正11年9月30日にフランス大使ポール・クローデルがフランス本国へ送った報告書の一部。

「幕府の財政状態が良くなかったにもかかわらず、小栗は自らが最重要と見ていた〈造船所〉の建設資金は滞りなく用意すると約束しました」
(ポール・クローデル『孤独な帝国 日本の1920年代』より)

 ここで「
滞りなく用意すると約束した」とフランス側(クローデル)が理解しているのは、幕府がフランス側へ渡した約定書を根拠としての記述であることは言うまでもない。もしフランスが建設費を貸していたらこういう文章にはならない。


<結局明治新政府の借金清算は>
 横須賀製鉄所は幕府が毎年支払いをやりくりしながら建設を進めてきたが、完成しない着工4年目に明治維新となり、新政府に引き継がれた。新政府に引き継がれた外国関係の未支払いは

「長崎製鉄所引き当ての金高、併横須賀製鉄所、灯明台、造幣局、鉱山局、軍艦等外国人に関係する諸払高」
のほか、旧幕府が発注したが支払いがされないまま現物引取りを終えていない武器・軍需品などがある。
 
 では、このうちで純粋に横須賀製鉄所建設に関する支払い残高はいくらか。
高村教授の見るところでは、
「新政府が別途返済したのは14万余円ということになり、しかもこの額は「和蘭商社」分を合わせたものである。横須賀製鉄所建設関係の未払分があったとすれば、このうちに含まれると思われるが、それはせいぜい数万円程度ではないか。<240万ドル借款>が実際に存在し、その未償還額を新政府が払ったと見るには、その金額はあまりにも少ないといわざるをえない。」

〈150万8千ドル支払済で、残りが83万1500ドル…『横須賀海軍船廠史』原書房

慶応4年閏4月1日 明治新政府が神奈川裁判所東久世通禧長官を派遣して旧幕府から新政府への受け取りを行なった。この時引き継ぎの精算として、

「横須賀横濱両製鉄所経費
一 洋銀二百四十万ドル 一箇年60万ドルずつ4箇年分仏国政府に約定せし目当高内
 150万8424ドル41セント
慶應元年乙丑8月起工より
本年戊辰3月に至るまで機械物品の買上代価に造船、造家、土工の費用其他雇仏人の給料職工人足の賃銭各経費支払の分
 83万1575ドル59セント
現今より落成に至るまでの目当高なり。然れども製鉄所起工以来物価騰貴に付概略1箇年分の経費即ち60万ドル内外不足すべき見込」
(『横須賀海軍船厰史』原書房)
  
…だけれども、起工以来の物価騰貴であとおよそ1年分すなわち60万ドル内外の予算が必要」との見込みを書いている。






<Interpretation of "beshi (should)">


I (Taiken Murakami, chief priest of Tozenji Temple), like Professor Takamura, interpret this part as above and below.

"However, once we have delivered this agreement (to the French government), the Shogunate will keep the right amount of $600,000 in reserve so that it can be handed over at any time, and we will also make sure that there will be no hindrance to the $600,000 as the side to be paid every year for the next four years.

Mr. Shibahara interpreted the word "beshi" after the word "torisoroeoku" as "should," meaning "(you) should prepare," or more strongly as "(you) must," meaning." " However, it is more natural to interpret it as the will of the shogunate, the issuer of the agreement, to "prepare the money."
Ref. The meaning of the word "beshi" in the high school course (link)

<Reference>

Incidentally, the following words are part of a report sent by French Ambassador Paul Claudel to France on September 30, 1922, the day after the unveiling of the busts of Verney and Kozukenosuke Oguri in Yokosuka.

"In spite of the poor financial condition of the shogunate, Oguri promised to finance the construction of the shipyard, which he considered to be of utmost importance, without delay."
(From Paul Claudel's The Lonely Empire: Japan in the 1920s) 

It is needless to say that the French side (Claudel) understands here that "he promised to provide without delay" is based on the written agreement that the shogunate gave to the French side.

<After all, how was the payment made by the new Meiji government?>

The construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks had been carried out by the Shogunate, making annual payments, but in the fourth year of construction before completion, the Meiji Restoration took place and the new government took over. The following is a list of foreign-related unpaid bills that were passed on to the new government:

"The amount of gold appropriated for the Nagasaki Ironworks, the Yokosuka Ironworks, lighthouses, the Mint, the Bureau of Mines, warships, and other payments related to foreigners."

In addition, there are other items such as weapons and munitions ordered by the former shogunate but not paid for and not yet delivered.  

So how much of this is purely related to the construction of the Yokosuka Works? Professor Takamura thinks that:


"The new government paid back separately more than 140,000 yen, and this amount included the payments made by the Waran Shosha. If there was any unpaid amount related to the construction of the Yokosuka Steel Works, it would be included in this amount, but it would probably be only a few tens of thousands of yen at most. The amount is too small to assume that the loan of $2.4 million actually existed and that the new government paid the unpaid amount.



<$1,508,000 had already been paid, and the remaining amount was $831,500...> (History of Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Hara Shobo)

On April 1, 1867, leap year of Keio 4, the new Meiji government dispatched Mr. Michiki Higashikuze, Commissioner of the Kanagawa Court, to receive the facilities at Yokosuka and Yokohama from the old shogunate to the new government.
At this time, the following remarks were made regarding the settlement of the handover:

"Yokosuka and Yokohama Ironworks Expenses:
$2.4 million, $600,000 per year for four years, the equivalent of the amount promised to the French government.
 O f which,the amount of 1,508,424 dollars 41 cents was for the purchase price of machinery and goods, the cost of shipbuilding, construction, and earthwork, and the wages of French employees and the wages of workers and laborers from the start of construction in August of 1865 (the first year of Keio) to March of this year (1968 or Boshin).
 The amount of 831,575.59 dollars was the estimated cost from now until the completion of the project. However, due to the rising cost of living since the start of the ironworks , there was an estimated shortfall of about one year's worth of expenses, or about $600,000."
(" History of Naval Shipyards in Yokosuka, Japan" Hara Shobo)


  ... As we see here, it is estimated that "with the rise in prices since the start of construction, another year's worth of budget, or around $600,000, is needed.”
 
高村直助『再発見・明治の経済』(塙書房・1995年)

「結局、幕府の対仏借款は、下関償金や、代金支払いが焦げ付いて結果的に債務になったものを別にすると、現実に資金を借り入れたという意味でのそれは1件もなかったのであり、新政府に引き継がれた対仏債務は、幕府崩壊で支払い不能に陥った兵器・軍需品代を中心として、最大限55万ドル以内であったというのが私の結論である」   『再発見・明治の経済』(塙書房・1995年)
Naosuke Takamura's "Rediscovering the Economy in the Meiji Era," published by Hanawa Shobo, 1995)

In the book, Takamura wrote:
In the end, apart from the Shimonoseki reparations and other loans that became debts as a result of burned-out payments, there was no actual borrowing of funds by the shogunate from France. Therefore, my conclusion is that the maximum amount of the debt to France that was passed on to the new government was no more than $550,000, mainly for the cost of weapons and munitions that were unable to be paid due to the collapse of the Shogunate.


*念のため付け加えれば、じつは横須賀製鉄所(造船所)には「完成」という日時はない。いちおう明治2年からフル稼動したということになっているが、すでに慶応年間に出来上がった施設から順次蒸気機関を原動力として稼動に入り、整備、補充を加えて増殖していったわけだから、いつが完成ということはない。(村上泰賢)

<石井孝氏との外圧論争>
 芝原氏は幕末当時の日本は外国からの外圧を受けて「半植民地状態だった」という論を立て、その証拠のひとつに横須賀造船所の借款をあげていた。しかし、石井孝氏は、その根拠となるべき横須賀の借款話は「
(芝原氏の)とんでもない事実の誤認」としている。
 参照:『明治維新と外圧』石井孝(吉川弘文館・平成5年)

<借款説の影響>
(小栗は)フランスと結んで何かやりかねない」としたり
フランスから金を借りて、その代わりに北海道を渡して、横須賀に造船所を作って・・・」(『封印の近現代史』渡部昇一・谷沢永一著・ビジネス社・2001年8月発行)

と語る学者は、この借款説を元にしているものと思われる。『開国』(日本の歴史23)が小学館から発行されておよそ40年、ほかにもかなりの人がこの「とんでもない事実の誤認」の借款説に乗って「小栗上野介は日本をフランスの植民地にしてでも徳川家を守ろうとした」と信じているに違いない。まったくの濡れ衣である。
(2004.12.8)


<


To be sure, the Yokosuka Ironworks (shipyard) never had a "completion" date. It is said to have been in full operation from 1869, the 2nd year of the Meiji Era (1869-1912), but there is no date for its completion, since the facilities that had already been built in the Keio Era (1868-1912) were successively put into operation using steam engines as the driving force, and then expanded by maintenance and replenishment. There is no time frame for completion. (Taiken Murakami)

<A debate with Takashi Ishii on external pressure>
 Mr. Shibahara argued that Japan at the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate was a "semi-colony" under foreign pressure, and cited the loan of the Yokosuka Shipyard as one of the proofs. However, Takashi Ishii says that the story of the Yokosuka loan, which should have been the basis for this argument, is "(Mr. Shibahara's) outrageous misunderstanding of the facts."
 Reference: "Meiji Restoration and Foreign Pressure," Takashi Ishii (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1993)

<The Impact of the Loan Theory>
Some scholars who say, "Oguri might do something with France," or "Oguri might borrow money from France, give Hokkaido in exchange, and build a shipyard in Yokosuka..." ("Sealed Modern History," by Shoichi Watanabe and Eiichi Tanizawa, published by Business-sha, August 2001) , are likely to base their theories on this loan theory.

It has been about 40 years since Shogakukan published "Kaikoku" (History of Japan 23), but many other people must believe that "Kozukenosuke Oguri tried to protect the Tokugawa family even if he turned Japan into a French colony" based on this "ridiculous misunderstanding of the facts" of the loan theory. This is a complete falsehood.
(Dec. 8, 2004)
 
 ▲フランソワ・レオンス・ヴェルニー
横須賀製鉄所首長として29歳で着任し、誠意をもって建設にあたった

Francois-Leonce Verney
He arrived in Japan at the age of 29 to be the head of the Yokosuka Ironworks and worked in good faith on its construction.
  
 3トンスチームハンマー
幕末にオランダ・ロッテルダムから購入したもの。平成9年まで稼動していた。
(ヴェルニー記念館・横須賀市)
 3-ton steam hammer
Purchased from Rotterdam, the Netherlands at the end of the Edo period. It was in operation until 1997.
(Verney Memorial Museum, Yokosuka City)

 

参考
小栗の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした:幕末世情混乱の中の根無し草の話
横須賀明細一覧図を読む:横須賀は近代工業の先端設備をそろえ、多くの見物客でにぎわった
横須賀造船所のページ
「土蔵つき売家」の横須賀造船所のページ
レンガのページ:横須賀で作られたレンガ
森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・
勝海舟の「海軍500年説」は:「海舟日記」の信憑性ゆらぐ
<Reference>
Falsely accued Oguri - he used Shikoku and Ezo as collateral:A baseless theory in the turmoil of the late Edo period
Reading the "Yokosuka Detailed List" Chart: The city of Yokosuka, with its advanced facilities for modern industry, was crowded with visitors.
Yokosuka Shipyard Page
Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"
The bricks made in Yokosuka
Advocacy of forest protection and cultivation: Shipbuilding requires a lot of wood...
Kaishu Katsu's "500 Year Navy Theory": The authenticity of "Kaishu's Diary" wavers