hp東善寺>小栗上野介・ワシントン    史跡調査  遣米使節の旅 ワシントンを訪ねる   2010平成22年9月
hpTozenji>Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in New York The Journey of the Japanese Delegation in 1860 - Historical Site Research in Washington DC in September 2010

史跡調査  遣米使節の旅 Historical Site Research - The Journey of the Japanese Delegation in 1860 
Washington DC
 このページ内の目次  海軍造船所  上陸記念碑除幕式 パレードの道  ホワイトハウス  マウントバーノン
Contents of this page:  Navy Yard  Unveiling ceremony of the landing memorial  Parade's Route  White House  Mount Vernon
ワシントン海軍造船所  上陸と見学地
Washington Navy Yard Landing and the places they visited

*文中の漢数字の日付けは和暦で、( )内が西暦による日付 * The year in the bracket is by the Japanese calendar.


The Japanese Delegation landed at the Washington Navy Yard on May 14, Monday, 1860 (leap March 24 of the Year of Man-en 1st), paraded the streets of the capital city on horse-drawn carriages and then arrived at Willard Hotel. On the following days, they met President Buchanan and visited the Navy Yard again to see it closely.
ワシントン海軍造船所 1862年 中央の旗竿の右下が長官官舎 
Washington Naval Shipyard in 1862: The house on thelower right of the flagpole in the center is the Secretary's office.


見学記念写真 前列右から2人目が小栗上野介

Commemorative photo at the Washington Naval Shipyard in 1862: The house on thelower right of the flagpole in the center is the Secretary's office. The second from the right in the front row is Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri.


▲ Landing at the Navy Yard, the Japanese Delegation was welcomed by crowd of frenzied people (drawing on the left). There was a huge number of people also on the streets, who welcomed the Japanese marching on carriages (drawing on the right). ▲

▲ There is a long wall surrounding the yard. We thought at first that they would not allow us to enter the premises, but...

▲ When we approached to the gate, a soldier asked us, "Are you going to the museum?" and then let us in quite easily. We later realized that, since they had stopped building ships and did not have much secrecy, they welcome the public. The U.S. Navy Museum in the premises displays the history of the U.S. navy.

▲ The Japanese delegation probably landed somewhere around the piers at the bottom in the drawing. The blue-colored vertical line on the right bottom seems to be the old dock.
海軍博物館 たくさんの海軍の歴史資料が整理されて陳列されている。マニアにとっては1日居ても飽きない展示に見えた。そしてなんと「ポウハタン号」の模型も飾られていて、「米国海軍最後の蒸気外輪軍艦」だそうな。この後はスクリュー式に変わっていったということになる。

▲ National Museum of the US Navy: It displays a lot of historical materials of the U.S. Navy in order. The display would not tire you if you were a navy maniac. Among other things, I was quite impressed that a miniature of the steamer Powhatan which carried the Japanese Delegation across the Pacific was displayed as the last paddle steamer of the U.S. Navy. It means that all the ships built after this ship were with propellers.
▲博物館隣の造船所提督の官舎 小栗公たちは後日に再度訪ねて造船所を見学し、ここで食事をご馳走になった。

Former residence of the Navy Yard's commander: Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri and his fellow delegation members were served meals after seeing the facilities of the yard.
上陸した波止場付近 見学用のフリゲート艦が係留されていた。

A wharf: The Japanese delegation probably landed somewhere around here, but the exact location could not be pointed out because of reclamation of the river since then. There was a frigate berthed for the public to visit.
▲一行が見学したドック  石垣の積み方は横須賀造船所の切石の方がきっちり積まれている。

The dock the Japanese delegation saw: I noticed the stone-walls were not structured as tight as those at the Yokosuka Shipyard.
正門  一行の日記に「石の門を出た」とあるのはこの門だった! 一行は馬車でここから出発し、ペンシルバニア通りへと進んでいった。現在は「グーグルのストリートビュー」で確認できるが、やはり行ってみて理解できた。感激した。 右の画像は、内側から見た正門 ▲ 

▲ Latrobe Gate (front gate): Some of the Delegation members wrote in their diaries that they had gone out to the street through a stone-built gate. I now know that they meant this gate. The Japanese Delegation started the parade from here on horse-drawn carriages and proceeded on 8th Street to Pennsylvania avenue. I could have seen this gate on Google Map's street view if I had known the location, but it was more tangible and moving to see the real gate. The photo on the right shows the inside view of the gate at a distance. ▲ 
▲所内のレストラン 天井には鉄骨のアングルがあって、元工場跡の雰囲気が残る。 食事は安くておいしかった。
▲ Restaurant in the yard: We saw steel structures exposed on the ceiling that reminded us that the place was formerly a factory. They served good dishes at low prices.
▲所内の資料局 ここの写真担当ジェームス・アレン氏が詳しい資料を示し、コピーしてくれた。

▲ Naval Historical Center in the yard: Mr. James Allen Knechtmann of the center kindly provided us with detailed information as well as some copies of those data.
▲一行が見学記念写真を撮ったのはこのあたり とアレン氏は案内してくれた。

▲ According to Mr. James Allen Knechtmann, the commemorative photo of the Japanese delegation at the top of this page was taken in this area.

At the navy yard, what the Japanese delegation saw was not a mere shipyard but rather an all-round factory where molten iron was handled to make all the steel products such as boilers and shafts for steam engines, gears, piles of various thickness, parts for cannons and rifles, and door knobs, lumber was cut at the carpentry shop to make ship bodies, cabins, stairways, and handrails, and in the final stage all the parts are assembled to complete ships. Seeing the factory, Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri must have felt in his bones, "We will be able to stand at the start line of modernization if we build a factory like this." After all, his experience at the yard would be a fundamental drive of constructing the Yokosuka Shipyard in later years. In that sense, their visit to the Washington Navy Yard was a turning point for Japan's industrialization.
Unveiling ceremony of
The monument commemorating the landing of Japanese envoys to the United States
erected at Willard Park, Washington Naval Shipyard
2016平成28年5月13日May 13, 2016   




The Japanese delegation to the U.S. in 1860 (the first year of the Man'en Era) traveled up the Potomac River on the river steamer "Philadelphia" and arrived at a dock of the Washington Naval Shipyard. On May 13, 2016, the U.S. Navy hosted a ceremony to unveil the landing monument, which the descendants of the Japanese delegation had built and donated to the United States, on the lawn of Willard Park.

◆ The first monument in the U.S. to commemorate the Japanese mission: In Japan, there is a monument in the pine forest in front of Zojoji Temple in Shiba Park, Tokyo, to commemorate the departure of the Japanese envoys to the United States, but this is the first monument to be erected in the United States.
◆ Confirmation of the itinerary of the Japanese mission to the United States: We can check the history of where they landed in Washington.
◆ Correction of historical misconceptions: It will be clear that the route of the delegation was different from that of the Kanrin Maru, which returned to Japan directly from San Francisco.  

Until now, history textbooks in junior high schools and high schools in Japan have simply mentioned that the delegation went to the United States. In addition, a picture of the Kanrin Maru, without the envoys on board, was used for the explanation.

This only led people to the misunderstanding that the envoys went to the U.S. on the Kanrin Maru under the command of Kaishu Katsu and that the Kanrin Maru and Katsu Kaishu were only the heroes. With the misunderstanding, in other words, the course of the envoys to the U.S. and where they landed in the U.S. remained unknown.

We need a monument in San Francisco, too, to commemorate the Japanese delegation to the U.S. in 1860. San Francisco was the first place on the mainland U.S. where they landed. As far as cities that Japanese people visit, San Francisco is by far the most popular, with a ratio of about 10,000 to one between San Francisco and Washington. Meanwhile, there is a monument in San Francisco commemorating the 100th anniversary of the arrival of the Kanrin Maru, and this also has led to an increase in the number of Japanese with the Kanrin Maru syndrome.

A commemorative photo with members of The Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the United States of America 1860 Inc. who also participated from Japan.
▲ The monument to the landing was set up on the other side of the long gun.

▲ A descendant of Colonel Dupont, a member of the reception committee at the time, brought a Japanese sword presented by Norimasa Muragaki, the vice-envoy in the delegation. The second from right is former Senator Norman Mineta.
除幕する  (朝日新聞撮影) 
 Unveiling the monument (Asahi Shimbun photo)
▲ Former Senator Norman Mineta delivers his congratulatory address.
(Asahi Shimbun photo)
祝辞を述べる村垣孝会長 (朝日新聞撮影)

Chairman Takashi Muragaki delivers his congratulatory address.
(Asahi Shimbun photo)
 Program for the unveiling ceremony
碑面に一行だけ日本語で「一般社団法人 万延元年遣米使節子孫の会」とある 
▲ On the monument, there is a single line in Japanese that reads, "General Incorporated Association, The Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the United States of America 1860 Inc."
造船所提督の官舎  上陸した一行はここでお茶をごちそうになったあと、馬車のパレードが始まった
▲ The Shipyard Admiral's Official Residence: After landing, the delegation was treated to tea here, and then the horse-drawn carriage parade began.
佐藤藤七の絵日記 レセプション会場で「東善寺の村上さんですか」と尋ねてきた米国議会図書館に勤めるイトウ氏が紹介したのは、メリーランド大学院生のクリステイさん。なんと、佐藤藤七の『渡海日記』の挿絵だけの和綴じ一冊が議会図書館に入っていて、その絵を研究しているという。 ALTで福井県に在住経験があり、拙著『小栗忠順従者の記録』も同図書館にあって、その挿絵と絵日記を比較研究しているという。
The picture diary of Toshichi Sato: At the reception hall, Mr. Ito, who works at the Library of Congress, came to me and asked if I was Mr. Murakami from Tozenji and introduced me to Ms. Christie, a Maryland graduate student. To my surprise, a Japanese-style book binding volume of Sato Toshichi's "Tokai Nikki (Diary of Crossing the Pacific Ocean)" only with the illustrations is in the Library of Congress and she is studying the illustrations. She used to live in Fukui Prefecture as an ALT (Assistant Language Teacher). According to her, my book "Oguri Tadamasa Jusha no Kiroku (The Record of Tadamasa Oguri’s Follower)" is also in the library, and she is doing comparative research on the illustrations and the diary.
 ▲ドック 遣米使節一行も見学したドックが使われないまま現存している。

 Dock: The dock the delegation visited is still there but not in use.

Parade's Route

遣米使節三使 左から 副使村垣淡路守範正・正使新見豊前守正興・目付小栗豊後守忠順
Three envoys to the U.S.: (From left to right) Vice-envoy Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, senior envoy Buzennokami Masaoki Niimi, and censor Bungonokami Tadamasa Oguri.
On the morning of June 2, 1860, a photographer was sent to the hotel to take pictures of the three envoys. The photos were taken in the chapel of the Willard Hotel.

After landing at the Washington Navy Yard on May 14, 1860, the Japanese delegation paraded the Eighth street to the north, Pennsylvania Avenue to north-west passing the Capitol Hill, and arrived at Willard Hotel. On the streets, huge crowd of citizens welcomed the delegation, threw flowers in the carriages, and came close and talked to the delegation members every time the parade stopped.

We tried to find old buildings on the route that the Japanese delegation might have seen 150 years ago. Though it was hard to say with certainty, there were many buildings, especially near the Navy Yard, old enough to be seen by the delegation.

There is a large open area with lawn in front of the U.S. Capital and the height of the buildings are severely limited all over the city, so the sky is wide and open. We were able to see the Washington Monument from the capital (photo on the right). Willard Hotel is located almost on the right side of the Washington Monument. We continued to walk, following the parade's route of the Japanese delegation.

There are old buildings along Pennsylvania Avenue, too. The Japanese delegation may have seen some of these buildings, marveled and overpowered, while they were parading.
▲郵政省跡 現在はフードコートなどが入るショッピングビル。 ただし入るのに持ち物検査があるのではお客が入りづらいのだが…。

▲ Old Post Office Department building: The department does not exist any more and there is a food court in the building. However, most of the buildings in this part of the capital require checking of personal belongings and this building is not an exception, so people must be hesitant to enter.
▲国会議事堂前 議事堂前まで近づいて大勢の人々が写真を撮っている。日本では警官がたくさんいて、地下鉄の駅までに何回か職務質問される。

The Capital: People can go very close to the building to take photos. It could be an unimaginable scene around the Parliament House in Tokyo where you would encounter police questioning several times even at a subway station nearby.
▲ウィラードホテル 使節一行が泊まった建物は建て替えられたが、やはり超一流ホテルの風格がある。

Willard Hotel: The Japanese delegation stayed at this hotel for 25 days from May 14 till June 8, 1860. However, the building they stayed was torn down and replaced with this new building in 1901. The hotel still has an atmosphere of a first-class hotel.
婦人の絵 着飾った婦人たちがホテルで待ち構え、興味しんしんで見つめていた。

Painting of ladies in old time: There are some old paintings like this in the hotel. Some dressed-up ladies were looking at this painting with much interest when we passed by.
▲ホテルのメニュー 1860年5月18日のメニューにはバニラアイスも出されたとある(東善寺蔵)。

Menu of Willard Hotel (Owned by Tozenji Temple): Vanilla ice was on the menu on May 18, 1860.
▲晩餐会 ホテルの第1泊め夕食には、たくさんの種類の食事が出された。「日本人は何を好んで食べるか」を調べるためだった。

Dinner Party: On the first dinner, various foods were served to find out what kind of foods the Japanese preferred.

White House

The Japanese delegation visited the White House from Willard Hotel on May 17, 1860 (March 27, the year of Man-en 1st). At noon, they had an audience with President Buchanan and gave him the instrument of the ratification of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and the Empire of Japan. Arriving at the White House, they entered the premises from an entrance of the north side, got off the carriages at the driveway apron, entered the building through the hall "8" in the drawing below and waited in the anterooms of "2" for ambassadors and "3" for suite. Then, they met President Buchanan in the East Room of "5."

▲ Soon after they left Willard Hotel and proceeded westward, they saw the palisades of the White House.

▲ The Japanese delegation entered the premises through the west side gate of the north entrance and got off the carriages at the driveway porch.

▲ As some delegation members wrote in their diaries, "the palisades made of iron" still stand there (photo on the left). Walking around the house from the north side (photo in the middle), we were able to see the famous half-circle-shaped balcony from the south at a distance (photo on the right).

▲ There is a floor plan of the White House embedded on the ground of a fountain park near Willard Hotel. The room on this side is the East Room.
ワシントン記念塔とリンカーン記念堂 議事堂からまっすぐ西に3キロ延びた広いグリーンベルトはリンカーン記念堂に行きつく。 素晴らしい都市設計だ。

The Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial: The green belt stretching from the Capitol Hill to the Lincoln Memorial has a length of about 3 km and has the Washington Monument in between. What a beautiful city plan!


Mount Vernon
George Washington lived in his later years and died here.

On May 14, 1860, the Japanese delegation got on the steamboat Philadelphia at Hampton Roads from the steam frigate Roanoke and continued their journey on Potomac River to Washington. On the way, the ship stopped near Mount Vernon, and all the American officers and crew observed a silent prayer toward the tomb of George Washington on the west bank. We wanted to see the scenery, so we took a drive to Mount Vernon in the south of Washington.

On May 14, 1860, the Japanese delegation got on the steamboat Philadelphia at Hampton Roads from the steam frigate Roanoke and continued their journey on Potomac River to Washington. On the way, the ship stopped near Mount Vernon, and all the American officers and crew observed a silent prayer toward the tomb of George Washington on the west bank. We wanted to see the scenery, so we took a drive to Mount Vernon in the south of Washington.
田舎道 ワシントンから南へ向かうとこんな田舎の風景になる。

▲ Country road: Driving for half an hour or so to the south of Washington, we were on a country road with little traffic like this.
ワシントンが住んでいた住宅の入口 博物館もできて聖地のような観光地となっている。

Entrance of the Washington's residence: It is kind of a holy land as well as a tourist attraction with a museum built nearby.
受付 ワシントン一家の像が出迎えてくれる。

Reception: Statues of the Washington family welcome you at the reception.
新しい墓所 移動したワシントン夫妻の新しい墓所にお参りする。

▲ New Vault: I bowed to the vault of the Washingtons where George Washington and his wife are sleeping. The vault was transferred here in 1831.
古い墓所 ジョージ・ワシントン自身が遺書に「ワシントン家の墓は修理が必要で場所も良くないから、ぶどう畑の付近にレンガ製でもっと大きなものを作って欲しい」と残したこともあって、1831年に左写真の新しい墓所に移された。

▲ The family vault was moved to the new place in the photo on the left in 1831 because George wrote in his will as follows:
"The family vault at Mount Vernon requiring repairs and being improperly situated besides, I desire that a new one of Brick, and upon a larger Scale, may be built at the foot of what is commonly called the vineyard enclosure... -- George Washington"

▲ A lot of tourists were strolling around vegetable fields and pastured farm animals.
波止場 川岸から所要時間40分の川船ツアーがあって、川に乗り出すことができた。

Jetty for sightseeing boats: We took 40 minutes tour on the river.
川の真ん中あたりから見たワシントンの住居 使節一行と同じ目線で、川の真ん中から眺められることに感激した。

Washington's residence: We were thrilled at seeing the residence from the river with the same angle as the Japanese delegation did 150 years ago.

▲ Mount Vernon is endowed with nature even today. I thought that the Japanese delegation must have seen almost the same scenery 150 years ago.
▲広くゆったり流れる川をさかのぼると遠くワシントンのビルや橋が見えてくる。 左がアレキサンドリアあたり。

▲ After cruising for about 15 minutes upstream on slowly running Potomac River, we were able to see the Washington Monument and the Capital of Washington at a distance. The town of Alexandria must be on the left bank.
ワシントン砦 一行の日記にも登場する、首都を護る大きな砦が左岸に残されていた。首都は外国船が直接乗りこめない少し浅い川の奥に設けられ、こうした砦が途中を守るしくみ。

Fort Washington: We saw Fort Washington, which used to protect Washington D.C., on the east bank of Potomac River. Some members of the Japanese delegation mentioned it in their diaries. American people selected an upstream location near a shallow river for their capital and protected it with this fort so that enemy ships could not approach easily.
濁った川 日記に「川の水は濁っている」とあるように、たしかに濁った水だった。たくさんのカモメが船についてきた。

Cloudy river: The water of Potomac River was quite cloudy as mentioned in the diaries of some delegation members. There were a lot of birds, probably seagulls, following the boat.

関連ページ   Related Pages 
US cities the Japanese delegation visited in 1860: Philadelphia


US cities the Japanese delegation visited in 1860: New York

Brochure "Three Ships That Carried the First Japanese Embassy to the United States Around the World"

Bridge of Hope (English) … 小栗上野介の業績を紹介するJEWL発行の書籍
JEWL(Japanese Executive Women's League) in Los Angeles introduces the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they published.





  Visiting the course of the mission to the U.S. (Hawaii): It also became a trip to learn the history of the fall of the Kingdom of Hawaii. History of Kamehameha Dynasty, the Royal Palace, French Hotel
 Visiting the course of the mission to the U.S. (Philadelphiai): Kozukenosuke Oguri insisted on an experiment to analyze U.S. and Japanese gold coins by full volume analysis.
 Visiting the course of the mission to the U.S. (New York): Bypassing the Broadway on the way to the hotel.
 Leaflet in Japanese and English, "Three ships for the mission to the U.S.": We made the leaflet to advocate removing the Kanrin Maru from school textbooks.
 Bridge of Hope (English) ... JEWL (Japanese Executive Women's League) in Los Angeles praises the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they have published.
 Itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the United States: The Itinerary of the first Japanese to go around the world
 Captain Brooke: The Kanrin Maru did not sink thanks to Brooke and John Manjiro.
 President's medals: Gold, silver, and bronze medals were presented to the envoys and all the followers.
 Tadamasa Oguri's Currency Negotiations: The currency experiments that made Oguri say "No" in Philadelphia
 The Japanese envoys to the U.S. decided to use the Hinomaru as the national flag: They chose the Hinomaru as the national flag of Japan, which was originally a ship's seal.
 Toshichi Sato, a village master who traveled around the world: Gonda village master traveled around the world as a follower of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri

 Sadayu Tamamushi: The world that a Sendai clan samurai saw was fresh.
 Oguri's Followers on the Mission to America: Nine Followers of Tadamasa Oguri
 Miyoshi Gonzo, a follower of Tadamasa Oguri in the mission to the U.S.: He was from Shimane prefecture.
 Achievements of the Japanese mission to the U.S.: Oguri brought back a screw nail.
 Reading the "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka"We can read from the drawing that Yokosuka was the place of the Industrial Revolution in Japan.
 Three ships for the Japanese mission to the U.S.: The USS Powhatan brought the mission to the U.S. by crossing the Pacific ocean and the Kanrin Maru was not used for the mission.
<Regarding the Kanrin Maru>
■There have been false theories recently that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a deputy envoy" and that "the ship on which the deputy envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru." Where are the roots of them?
 The Kanrin Maru myth created by Shushin textbooks: The "story" of the Hamrin Maru was taught in the national textbook "Shushin" from 1918 to 1945, and it still confuses Japanese people.

 Japanese people with the "Kanrin Maru disease": A syndrome that they feel uncomfortable unless they mention the Kanrin Maru and Kaishu Katsu in every occasion.

 Izu Shimoda, the town of the USS Powhatan
 A letter of thanks to Mr. Hideyuki Okazaki, a model sailing ship artist: Thanks to him, we have three ships of the mission to the U.S.
 Tommy Polka: Music of Onojiro Tateishi, a boy interpreter who became very popular in the U.S.
■ Mission to the U.S. and American Dairy Farming: The first Japanese to eat ice cream

◇ List of the Japanese Envoys to the United States in 1860 (Link)
◇ Sozaburo Okanoya (Follower of Jugoro Tsukahara of Tatebayashi Domain) (Link)