|住職のコラム（東善寺） ●● 小栗上野介の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした
Column by the Chief Priest (Tozenji Temple) ●● Falsely accused Kozukenosuke Oguri - "Oguri mortgaged Shikoku and Ezo."
<Falsely Accused Kozukenosuke Oguri>
The theories that "Oguri mortgaged Shikoku" and "Oguri tried to sell Hokkaido"
Since the Meiji era, a theory has been told that "Oguri tried to borrow
money from France by mortgaging Shikoku or Hokkaido..." and he has
been seen as a man who would do anything to protect the shogunate.
Regarding this theory, Arata Ninagawa wrote the following:
In an article published at the height of the emperor-centered movement in 1949, Takaya Nakamura, a well-known historian of the time, wrote "Oguri lacked the clarity to understand the times. He planned to borrow money from France, using Shikoku as collateral. It was a dangerous thing for Japan."
I was eager to find out if such a fact existed, so I presented a copy of the book to Mr. Nakamura and politely asked him to provide me with the documents on which he based his argument. In response, Mr. Nakamura replied, "I have no references. I only have a note in the corner of my notebook.
(Arata Ninagawa, "Kozukenosuke Oguri, Pioneer of the Opening of Japan," p. 204, 1953)
The "Shikoku as collateral" theory seems to have originated from the words of Kaishu Katsu.
This theory seems to have originated from the words of Kaishu Katsu: After hearing about the loan from France from Kozukenosuke Oguri in Edo, Kaishu Katsu went to Osaka Castle, where he is said to have told a chief senior councilor of the Shogunate, "Since the country's treasures are exhausted, we will pledge the land and borrow money from France..." ("Kaishu Nisshi"). It is also reported that Katsu said, "I am against this kind of thing."
Loans between countries are common nowadays, and no one is surprised. The question is whether or not the loans include loans secured by national land.
Economist Fujiyoshi Sakamoto's theory ... "The collateral story is irrelevant to Oguri."
Sakamoto stated as follows:
Sakamoto then refers to the following book by Takematsu Otsuka.
Historian Sokichi Tsuda wrote the following about the words of Kaishu Katsu:
In his diary, Katsu (Kaishu Katsu) unceasingly abused the authorities of the Shogunate, but on what solid basis did he do so? Katsu calls Oguri (Kozukenosuke Oguri), an accounting magistrate at the time, a "great evil" because Oguri tried to borrow money from France. However, it is a common practice in Europe to issue bonds in foreign countries, so if Katsu does not agree with this policy, it is a difference of opinion, not a reason to call Oguri's character evil. Katsu also said, "Oguri's viewpoint is too narrow to be understood by the majority of people in the world." However, this is a similar story and some people praise Oguri for his far-reaching insight, his useful temperament, and his passion for Tokugawa. This seems to be more accurate in light of Oguri’s background and accomplishments...
(Sokichi Tsuda, "A Study of the Meiji Restoration," Mainichi One's)
2. The theory of using Sakhalin as collateral... "only Roches's suggestion"
Léon Roches, consul general of France in Japan, met with Yoshinobu Tokugawa
in Osaka on February 6 and 7, 1898, and stayed in Osaka for 24 days. During
the time, he often met with Katsukiyo Itakura, a chief senior councilor
of the Shogunate, and Yoshitada Hirayama, the foreign magistrate. In the
course of these meetings, he proposed that Japan borrow $5 million from
Britain and France in order to establish its finances and transfer its
mining rights on Sakhalin Island as collateral.
Of course, Roches only proposed the transfer of mining rights in Sakhalin to the chief senior councilor and others, but it never came to fruition. This story appears in the following book as a document submitted to the Shogun.
The book describes the story as follows:
In a letter to the Shogun from the French consul general Roches on April 13, Keio 3, he wrote, "The Shogun was about to sign a loan agreement at this time. The Shogun is willing to provide pledges as desired for it. To do so, let us pawn Ezo, which is controlled by the Shogun's family. The Shogunate would pay the principal and interest of the loan by applying the Shogunate's harvest and the harvest from the gold and silver mines in Ezo, which were now to be given to the great trading companies of Britain and France. With that, the Shogunate is going to request support from both of these powers. The Shogunate asked one of these powers to support its army and the other to support its navy." ・・・・ This was a theory to borrow money from Britain and France using Hokkaido's mines as collateral, and to obtain the support of the British navy and French army.
(“Bakumatsu Gaiko Monogatari - A Tale of Diplomacy at the End of the Edo Period," Takeki Osatake, Bunka Seikatsu Kenkyukai, 1926, Taisho 15.)
This theory of securing Ezochi was only proposed by Roche, but was never realized. It is clear that this is a loan story unrelated to Kozukenosuke Oguri.
Reference page "Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri by misreading of the Japanese and Western Calendars": A book that frames Oguri based on a misreading of the Japanese and Western calendars. The author (Mitake Katsube) wrote the book based on the contents of "Bakumatsu Gaiko Monogatari (A Tale of Diplomacy at the End of the Edo Period)" Takeki Osatake.
(Note) Ezochi is the general name for the area including the main island of Hokkaido, excluding the Japanese colony centered on the castle town of Matsumae of the Matsumae clan, and the surrounding islands including Sakhalin Island (Sakhalin Island) and the Kuril Islands.
3. The theory that Awaji Island was used as collateral... "Rootless at a time of unrest in the hearts and minds of the people"
I would also like to mention the story of the French Minister's request for the lease of Awaji Island, written by Takematsu Otsuka. "The theory that the French Minister (Roches) asked the Shogunate for a lease on Awaji Island is a rootless story, based on the unrest of people's minds at a time of emergency, just as the fact that a proposal was made in Osaka at the time of this theory to solicit loans from Britain and France for mining rights on Karafuto Island, was obviously leaked and misrepresented."
Thus, the author believes that the stories of the lease of Awaji Island and the collateral for Sakhalin, both rootless stories with no substance, were exaggerated as they walked alone and created suspicion and anxiety from the public at the time.
In the book "Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration" by Marius Jansen, it is written as follows:
In 1865...at the beginning of January, a special economic plan was drawn
up under (Kozukenosuke) Tadamasa Oguri, which gave France a virtual monopoly
on certain items for Europe, especially silkworm seed boards and cocoons,
in return for which the French side provided financial and technical assistance..."
Thus, there is no mention of collateral for the financial aid from France other than the granting of exclusive rights to buy silkworm seed boards and cocoons.
Taken together, the theory of Awaji Island as collateral seems to be similar to the "Shikoku or Ezo collateral theory," which is taken straight from Katsu Kaishu's words to make Kozukenosuke Oguri out to be a simple sabaku theorist (people supporting the Shogunate).
4. New "Hokkaido Sellout" Theory... added in January 2002
A new book has recently been published on "Kozukenosuke Oguri's attempt
to sell Hokkaido to a foreign country."
In "Why was Kozukenosuke Oguri Executed?" (p. 170), the two men
discuss the following in the form of a dialogue:
Watanabe: The two who were really executed by the Imperial Army were Isami Kondo and Kozukenosuke Oguri. The rest were killed in battle and were not executed. The reason these two were executed was because they were so hated. Isami Kondo was the boss of the Shinsengumi, which is not surprising considering how much the revolutionaries suffered for the sake of the Shinsengumi. Then there was Kozukenosuke Oguri, who, if his plan had been followed, the government forces would have lost. That is why they hated him and killed him.
Tanizawa: Kozukenosuke Oguri was a pure bureaucrat with a good head who had quickly risen through the mainstream of the shogunate. This bureaucrat had a plan to borrow money from France and give Hokkaido in exchange, and to build a munitions factory in Yokosuka to build warships. In this way, they would create a new Tokugawa government, a truly horrifying scheme. After all, it would be like becoming a vassal state of France."
Watanabe: So, if the west forces attacked before he had sold out Hokkaido, he was thinking of stopping them at the Hakone Mountains and then using his warships to land back in Osaka...
Tanizawa: ... From the old days, when a castle falls, a considerable hero emerges, but Oguri deserves it. He built a big blast furnace or something in Yokosuka in the end and said, "We have no choice but to sell our house, but the fact that we sell it with a warehouse attached is at least prideful. He was respectful of Tokugawa's authority.
I am afraid that "Kozukenosuke Oguri was killed because he was hated..." is a very childish and illogical story. Anyway, I inquired through the editorial department of the publisher about the source of the story that "Kozukenosuke Oguri was trying to sell out Hokkaido" to both authors. In response, I received an answering machine message from the editorial department stating that they had read various books and could not respond immediately, but that they were aware of such a story.
I have no choice but to send them a copy of this page and ask them to point out any errors in the page now. (January 2002, Heisei 14)
We have found an error that we believe is the basis for the argument regarding the part "This bureaucrat had a plan to borrow money from France and give Hokkaido in exchange, and to build a munitions factory in Yokosuka to build warships." Please see the following page:
"Munitions factory": The Yokosuka Shipyard is a "general factory that builds everything and ships with steam engines as the driving force," and is not just a munitions factory that only builds military equipment.
"He built a big blast furnace or something in Yokosuka...": Yokosuka
started as an "ironworks," but there was no blast furnace in
the meaning of making iron from iron ore because the "ironworks"
was "a place to make iron products" until the 4th year of Meiji.
Please refer to the following page "Read Yokosuka Detailed List Chart".
"Read the Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka": There was no blast furnace at the Yokosuka Ironworks.
"Frame-up against Kozukenosuke Oguri - The loan theory about the Yokosuka Ironworks: The story of the loan for the construction of the shipyard was based on a misreading of an ancient document.