遣米使節関連(東善寺HP)  ●●    「木村摂津守喜毅は副使」「副使の乗った船が咸臨丸」説は誤り
Related to the Japanese envoys to the U.S. (Tozenji Temple)  ●● The theories that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a vice-envoy" and "the ship on which the vice envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru" are incorrect.
(咸臨丸軍艦奉行)木村摂津守喜毅は副使」説
「副使の乗る船が咸臨丸」
・・・という説は誤り


The theories that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura (the Warship Magistrate in charge of the Kanrin Maru) was a vice envoy" and "The ship which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru" are both false.

 *はじめにお断りしておくが、木村摂津守喜毅は人柄・挙措動作・人格いずれも尊敬に値する武士で、咸臨丸が北太平洋で沈まなかったのは
ブルック大尉ジョン万次郎及び、二人を乗船させることに苦心してこぎつけた木村摂津守喜毅のおかげであり、咸臨丸ではこの三人がさわやかな物語を展開している。
 以下は、後世の人が「史実を曲げてことを論ずる」のは将来に歴史を誤る恐れがあると考え、公開します。

* I would like to state two things at the outset. Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a samurai worthy of respect in terms of character, behavior, and personality. Also, it was thanks to Captain Brooke, John Manjiro, and Settsunokami Kimura who took great pains to bring them on board that the Kamrin Maru did not sink in the North Pacific Ocean. The story of these three men on the Kanrin Maru is a refreshing one.

I publish the following because I believe that future generations "bending historical facts to discuss things" could lead to historical errors in the future.
                           
 近年、「木村喜毅は副使」あるいは「正使はポウハタン号で、副使の乗る船が咸臨丸」とする説が、いくつかの書やHP・ブログで見られるようになりました。これも咸臨丸病の一つと思われます。

 In recent years, several books, websites, and blogs have come up with the theories that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy" and "the official envoy got on board the Powhatan, and the ship on which the vice-envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru." These are thought to be some examples of the Hanrin Maru diseases.

 
       
◆例えば    For example,

  咸臨丸乗組員の子孫という著者の
「軍艦奉行木村摂津守」土居良三(中公新書1994年平成6年)
『咸臨丸海を渡る』土居良三(未来社1992年平成2年)(中公文庫1998年)…「木村喜毅は副使」「副使が乗った船が咸臨丸」説の根源はこの本か・第6回和辻哲郎文化賞が泣く錯誤。この書以前に「木村喜毅は副使」説は見つからない。

The following books were written by a person who is a descendant of the Kamrin Maru crew.
- "Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura"by Ryozo Doi (Chuko Shinsho 1994, Heisei 6)
-  "Kanrin Maru Umi wo Wataru (Kanrin Maru Crossing the Pacific Ocean)" by Ryozo Doi (Miraisha 1992 Heisei 2) (Chuko Bunko 1998): This book seems to be the root of the theories that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy" and "the ship on which the vice envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru." Before this book, I have not been able to find the theory that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice-envoy." If so, it would be an error that would tarnish the 6th Watsuji Tetsuro Cultural Award the book received.


『咸臨丸の絆』宗像善樹(海文堂2014平成26年)・・・『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』を参照したらしく
  「木村喜毅が副使…」
  「遣米副使…」
  「木村は副使といえども正使の新見と同格の御役目……」

として格上げを図っている。「身内が咸臨丸乗組員の子孫」という著者も 最近その誤りを認め、図書館協議会選定図書となっていたのを辞退している。
 
"The Kizuna of the Kanrin Maru,"by Yoshiki Munakata (Kaibundo 2014 Heisei 26) ... The author seems to have referred to "Gunkan Bogyo Settsunokami Kimura" and upgraded Kimura with the following words:
  "Yoshitake Kimura was the vice envoy..."
  "Vice envoy to the U.S...."
  "Kimura, even as a vice envoy, is of the same rank as Niimi, the official envoy. ......"

Recently, the author, who says that his relatives are descendants of the crew of the Kanrin Maru, has acknowledged the errors and declined to have the book selected by the Library Council.



 ブログでは
「清く美しい流れ-日本人の生き方を取り戻す-」田口佳史(PHP出版)…「遣米副使として……」遣米使節団と咸臨丸一行を混同しているように読める部分がある。
木村芥舟(ウィキペディア)
「木村は咸臨丸の司令官として遣米副使を命じられ…
木村摂津守喜毅(ニコニコ大百科)…「遣米使節副使として渡海航海…」「副使は日本で別の船を仕立てて送り出すことにした。それが咸臨丸……」
「江戸散歩」(クリナップ)…「なお、副使は咸臨丸の木村摂津守喜毅だった」 本当の副使村垣淡路守範正をまったく無視している記述。
「史跡訪問の日々」…「木村は副使として…」
国際派日本人養成講座「咸臨丸に乗り組む副使として任命されたのが…木村摂津守喜毅」
「ハワイスペシャリスト検定公式ガイド」(エイ出版社)「使節団副使の木村摂津守喜毅」その他は要点をわかりやすくまとめてあり、ハワイを知るのに良い検定ページ。
山口県医師会報
…この他ブログにもたくさん見受けられます。
 
咸臨丸子孫の会のHPには「木村摂津守喜毅が副使」という記述はありません。


In blogs, we can find wrong descriptions as follows:
- "A Clear and Beautiful Stream - Restoring the Japanese Way of Life" by Yoshifumi Taguchi (PHP Publishing): "As a vice envoy to the U.S. ......" There are parts that read as if the author confuses the Japanese delegation to the U.S. and the Kamrin Maru group.
- Kaishu (Settsunokami Yoshitake) Kimura (Wikipedia): "Kimura was ordered to serve as a vice envoy to the U.S. as the commander of the Kanrin Maru..."
- Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura (Nikoniko Encyclopedia): "He sailed to sea as a vice envoy to the United States..." "The vice envoy decided to prepare another ship in Japan and send it out. That is the Kanrin Maru. ......"
- "In the Days of Visiting Historic Sites": "Kimura served as a vice envoy to..."
- Kokusaiha Nipponjin Yosei Koza (International Japanese Training Course): Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was appointed as the vice envoy aboard the Kanrin Maru.
- "The Official Guide to Hawaii Specialist Certification" (Ei Shuppansha): "Settsunokami Yositake Kimura, vice envoy of the Mission." Other than this, it summarizes the main points in an easy-to-understand manner, and is a good certification page for learning about Hawaii.
- Yamaguchi Prefectural Medical Association Bulletin :...

There are many more wrong descriptions on other blogs.  

By the way, there is no mention of "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura as a vice envoy" on the website of the Society of Kanrin-maru Descendants.

     
          
◆実際はどうなのか What was it really like?


幕府が遣米使節副使として任命したのは村垣淡路守範正ひとりだけ。
以下がその文書
(原文は縦書き)

 己未九月十三日
                          新見豊前守
                            村垣淡路守

                            小栗 又一

亜墨利加国へ使差遣候節新見豊前守正使村垣淡路守は副使小栗又一は立合之心得ニ可罷在事
                  《『幕末維新 外交史料集成 第一巻』禮儀門 P235

この他に副使に任ぜられたものはいないことを確認しておく。

The Shogunate appointed only one person, Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, as the vice envoy to the United States. The following is the content of the written appointment (the original is written vertically) .

September 13th, 1859
To: Buzennokami Shinmi, Awajjinokami Muragaki and Mataichi Oguri*
When we dispatch envoys to the U.S., please be advised that Buzennokami Shinmi will be the official envoy, Awajinokami Muragaki will be the vice envoy, and Mataichi Oguri (note*) will be the censor.     ("Bakumatsu Ishin Gaiko Shiryo Shusei Vol. 1" Reigimon p. 235)

(note*: Bungonokami (later Kozukenosuke) Tadamasa Oguri was called Mataichi at the time.
It should be noted that no other person was appointed to the position of the vice envoy.

遣米使節

(使節団では、三使・三公と
呼ばれた)

The envoys to the U.S.
(In the delegation, they were called "the three envoys" or "the three dukes")

▲左から副使村垣淡路守範正・正使新見豊前守正興・目付小栗豊後守忠順
From left, the vice envoy Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, the official envoy Buzennokami Masaoki Shinmi, and the censor Bungonokami Tadamasa Oguri

              

     
    ◆臨時代理は三名いた 
There were three candidates for temporary representatives.
 
 
では

木村摂津守喜毅は使節に万一の時の代理役だから副使と同格」とする説 はどうか。

 万一の時の代理役については上記三使任命の後追加指令があって、結局三名の臨時代理が指名され、その順序は次の1,2,3となる。

Then, what about the theory that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was supposed to act as a deputy in the event that something should happen to the envoys, so he was the same rank as a vice envoy"?

After the appointment of the three envoys, additional orders were issued for deputies in the event that something should happen to the envoys, and eventually three candidates for temporary deputies were nominated, in the following order: 1, 2, and 3.


1人目「目付小栗又一は正使・副使に支障があった時は一人でも代行すべし」  という下知があった。

    ◯外国奉行下知状案   …まず、(外国奉行の)正使副使にその旨を伝え
奉行
     御下知状案
一、今般本条約書為取替亜墨利加國江被遣一條両国永世懇親之御主意厚相心得可申事
一、彼地滞在中諸般他邦江差響候義は雖些末之事厚勘弁可致事
一、右御用中万事其方共江御任被成間
  御国體を大切ニ存後来之御為深く勘弁致し取計可申事
一、其方共之内病気其外万一意外之差支有之節は又一儀壱人に而も御使可相勤事
   (その方たちもし病気など万一の支障がある時は、(小栗)又一が一人でもお使いを務めなさい)

1, There was an order that "The censor Mataichi Oguri should act solely on behalf of the official and vice envoys when they are unable to carry out their duties."

In the proposed directive to foreign magistrates, who would be the official and vice envoys to the U.S., there was a sentence which read as follows:
"If any of the envoys should become ill or suffer any other inconvenience, Mataichi Oguri shall be their deputy representative."


      目付下知状案   …続いて目付小栗忠順本人にも直接伝えている。

御目付
   下知状案
一、今般本条約書為取替立会として亜墨利加國江被遣両国永世懇親之御主意厚相心得可申事
一、彼地滞在中諸般他邦江差響候義は雖些末之もの厚勘弁可致事
一、右御用中万事外国奉行江御任被成間心添いたし若奏論も候はば帰府之上
  御国體を大切ニ存後来之御為深く勘弁し心添可申事
一、外国奉行取計向若如何と存儀於有之は無腹蔵申談筋合宜敷方ニ決着可致事
一、外国奉行病気其外万一意外之差支も有之節は其方儀壱人ニ而も御使可相勤事
   (外国奉行=正使副使が病気など万一の時はその方が一人でもお使いを務めなさい)
  右條々厚相心得外国奉行可申談もの也
       《『幕末維新 外交史料集成 第四巻』修好門 P2122

 In the proposed directive to the censor, the order was also directly conveyed to Mataichi (Tadamasa) Oguri as follows:
"If any of the official and vice envoys should become ill or suffer any other inconvenience, you shall serve as their deputy even by yourself."  ("Bakumatsu Ishin Gaiko Shiryo Shusei Vol. 4" Shukomon, p. 21-22)



2人目,さらに咸臨丸出帆直前一月九日に追加指令があって、木村摂津守喜毅(咸臨丸)が代理役を命じられている。

○新見豊前守外二人疾病等ニテ使節勤メ難キ節ハ代リテ使節タルベシト木村摂津守ニ指令
庚申正月九日
                                  木村摂津守江
                                  木村摂津守
 今度亜墨利加国江被遣候 御使之面々御用中若病気等に而何も差支え候節者其方御使相勤候心得に而可被罷在候
  (このたびアメリカへ派遣される使節の面々(三使を指す)が病気などで支障が生じた場合はその方が使者を務めるつもりでいるようにしなさい)

2、An additional order was issued on January 31, 1860 (January 9, 1860 in Japanese calender) , just before the departure of the "Kanrin Maru," and Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura who would go on board the Kanrin Maru was ordered to act as a deputy.

To Settsunokami Kimura:

In the event that any of the three envoys to be dispatched to the U.S. are disturbed by illness or other problems, you should be willing to serve as the envoy.


3人目、2,と同時に追加指令で、勘定組頭森田岡太郎(ポウハタン号)が使節(三使)も木村喜毅も支障が生じた場合の代理役を命じられている。

◯同上云々 組頭森田岡太郎ニ演達スベシト勘定奉行ニ指令
  庚申正月九日
       御勘定奉行江
                                    御勘定組頭
                                         森田岡太郎
 今度亜墨利加国江被遣候御使之面々並木村摂津守共御用中若病気等に而何も差支え候節者其方 御使相勤候心得に而可被罷在旨可被申渡候

 (このたびアメリカへ派遣される使節の面々(三使を指す)並びに木村摂津守も病気などで支障が生じた場合はその方が使者を務めるつもりでいる事を申し渡します

3, An additional order was given to Okataro Morita (on borad the Powhatan), the head of the accountant group, to act as a deputy in the event of any trouble with either the three envoys or Yoshitake Kimura.

The order was given to Okataro Morita, the head of the accountant group, through the accounting magistrate on January 31, 1860 (January 9, 1860 in Japanese calender):

In the event that the three envoys to the United States and Settsunokami Kimura are unable to carry out their duties due to illness or other reasons, you are hereby informed that you will serve as their deputy.



以上を総合すると、幕府は

1,正使・副使に支障が生じた場合は目付小栗又一が代わって任務を果たすよう指示している。
2、三使(正使・副使・目付)共に病気等で不都合が生じた場合は、(咸臨丸の)軍艦奉行木村摂津守喜毅がその代理を務めること。
3、三使(ポウハタン号)も木村摂津守喜毅(咸臨丸)も支障が生じた場合は勘定組頭森田岡太郎(ポウハタン号)がその代理となることを指示している。

Taken together, the Bakufu's instructions were as follows:

1. In case the Official and Vice Envoys had any difficulty in performing their duties, (Kozukenosuke Tadamasa) Mataichi Oguri , the Censor, was instructed to fulfill the duties in their stead.
2. It is instructed that in the event of illness or other inconvenience to the three envoys (the Official Envoy, Vice Envoy and the Censor) Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura, the Warship Magistrate, on board the Kanrin-maru, should act in their place.
3. It is instructed that in the event of any difficulty in the performance of duties by either the three envoys aboard the Powhatan or Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura on board the Kanrin Maru, Morita Okataro, the head accountant on board the Powhatan, will act in their place
.

 *1,2,3,いずれも副使という正式な職名は与えていない
  
  
代理だから副使と同等=副使、とする論理は「副使にしたい」だけの後世の無理な話。もしこの論理が通るなら、1,2,3の順序でまず小栗忠順が副使と言えることになる。

 *咸臨丸は当初は江戸-サンフランシスコ-パナマまで随行することになっていたから、2,の指令はパナマまでの太平洋上で判断・実行すべきことであって、国書も批准書も持っていない木村喜毅の立場ではパナマ以降は無効となる。
 *2,3の追加指示が一月十三日咸臨丸出港直前の一月九日に発せられていることから考えると、あくまでも往路の太平洋横断航海中の不慮の事故を想定して、付け足しのように急遽発令されたもので、当初からの計画的なものとは言いがたい。

 *多くの書籍やHP・ブログで
「木村摂津守喜毅が副使」「副使が乗る船が咸臨丸」としているのは誤りと言える。

From the above we know the following:

- Neither *1, 2, nor 3 gave the official title of "deputy envoy." The logic that "deputy envoy" is equivalent to "vice envoy" because he is a deputy is an impossible story of a later generation that only "wants to make him a vice envoy." If this logic holds true, then Tadamasa Oguri can be said to be a deputy envoy in the first place.

- The Kanrin Maru was originally scheduled to accompany the ship from Edo to San Francisco to Panama. Therefore, the 2,'s directive should be judged and executed in the Pacific Ocean up to Panama, and that directive would be invalid after Panama in the position of Yoshitake Kimura, who had neither the national letter nor the ratification letter.

- Additional instructions 2 and 3 were issued on January 9, just prior to the departure of the Kamrin Maru on January 13. Considering this, they were issued hastily as an addendum in anticipation of an unexpected accident during the outward trans-Pacific voyage and it is difficult to say that they were planned from the beginning.

- Based on the above, we can say with certainty that many books, websites, and blogs err in stating that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was the vice-envoy" and "the ship on which the vice envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru."



 ◆「木村喜毅が副使」説の始まりはいつ、なぜー

When and why did the theory that "Yoshitake Kimura was a deputy envoy" begin?
 

 始まりは
 
1960昭和35年、遣米使節100年記念式典が行われた時の参列者名簿にある木村喜毅の肩書は「軍艦奉行」であって副使とは書かれていない。式典には木村摂津守喜毅の子孫しづ氏が参列している。「木村喜毅が副使」説はこの昭和35年以後に生まれ、近年に広まったと思われる。

The Beginning  

In 1960 (Showa 35), when the ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Japanese mission to the U.S. was held, the title of Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura on the list of attendees was "Warship Magistrate" but not "Vice Envoy." Shizu, a descendant of Kimura, attended the ceremony. The theory that "Yoshitake Kimura was a vice envoy" seems to have been born after 1960 and spread in recent years.

なぜ
 1961昭和36年に『遣米使節史料集成』が発刊され、そこに収められた史料、とくにブルック大尉の「咸臨丸日記」から咸臨丸の実態が知られて、

 戦前の修身教科書
 「勝海舟の願いで派遣されることになった咸臨丸」
 「日本人だけで太平洋横断航海をした偉業・壮挙」
 「航海中立ち続けてみんなを励ました勝海舟」

という勝海舟・咸臨丸の勇ましいイメージ(虚構)が覆ることになった。


Why?  
In 1961 (Showa 36), the "the Historical Records of the Japanese Delegation to the U.S. in 1860 (the First Year of the Man'en Era)" was published, and the actual condition of the Kanrin Maru became known from the historical documents contained in the book, especially  Captain John Mercer Brook's "Kanrin Maru Nikki (Diary of Captain Brook)."

As a result, the following heroic images (fictions) of Kaishu Katsu and Kanrin Maru in prewar Shushin textbooks were overturned:
"The Kanrin Maru was dispatched at the request of Kaishu Katsu."  
"The voyage across the Pacific Ocean was a feat and a grand accomplishment only by Japanese."
"Katsu Kaishu stood and cheered everyone on throughout the voyage."
 

 
もともと「修身」には虚構の「お話」が含まれるから、歴史ではない。戦後に咸臨丸のメッキがはがれただけのこと。以来50年以上経過して周知され、近年のテレビや映画で勝麟太郎が咸臨丸で活躍する画面が出てこないのも、理由は同じで、描けなくなったからである。

 昭和35年以前の書物に「木村喜毅の副使説」は見られないから、イメージが覆った咸臨丸の再格上げ復権を図る動きとして出てきたものと推測される。

 
Originally, the Shushin Textbooks contained fictional "stories," so not all of them were history, and it was only after the war that the fictional stories of Kanrin Maru were exposed. The same reason why there are no screens of Rintaro Katsu playing an active role on the Kanrin Maru in recent TV dramas and movies is because it is no longer possible to depict the story.  

Since "the theory of Yoshikatsu Kimura was the deputy envoy" is not found in any books written prior to this, it is assumed that it came out as a movement to re-upgrade and reinstate the image of the Kanrin Maru which had been overturned.


たとえばこの本
『咸臨丸海を渡る』土居良三(未来社1992平成2年)(中公文庫1998) と
『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』土居良三(中公新書1994平成6年) に

For example, let's take a look at the following books:
"Kanrin Maru Umi-wo Wataru (Kenrin Maru crossing the Pacific ocean)" by Ryozo Doi (Miraisha 1992 Heisei 2) (Chuko Bunko 1998)
"Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura" by Ryozo Doi (Chuko Shinsho 1994, Heisei 6).

 文中で
正使に万一の支障があった場合、代るべき副使を乗せるための船という名目で、その副使に軍艦奉行を当てることとした」

「別船に乗る副使」

「別船を副使の乗る船としたのは・・・」

「正式に遣米副使として咸臨丸に搭乗」


   …としているのが初出と思われる。

The following sentences appear in the books:

"It was decided that in the event that the offiial envoy was disturbed, the warship magistrate would replace him as the deputy envoy, and the Kanrin Maru would be used in the name of a ship to carry the deputy envoy."

"Vice engoy on a different ship"
"The reason why another ship was designated as the one on which the vice envoy would board was..."

"He officially boarded the Kanrin Maru as a deputy envoy to the U.S."

This was probably the first time the term "vice envoy" was used in reference to Settsunokami Kimura.


『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』中公新書平成6年

"The Navy Ship "KIMURA" "KETSU MORI" Nakagong Shinsho" Heisei 6 years

 著者は木村喜毅の従者長尾幸作の子孫というが、好著と言われる同書になぜこのような記述をしたのだろう。

 さらに、同書には軍艦奉行木村喜毅が「遣米使節に任ぜられた」として次のような記述もある。

   「11月24日、江戸城内桔梗の間において、木村図書に遣米使節を命ずる式が行われた。「木村日記」には
   次のように記されている。
      掃部頭御老中方列座、和泉守殿左之通り仰せ付けられ候
             亜墨利加國江為御用被差遣候間可致用意候 」


 これは、「アメリカへ御用のため派遣するから用意しなさい」とあるだけで、「遣米使節に任じる」命令形式とはいえないもし木村喜毅を遣米使節あるいは副使に任じたという公式文書があるなら正式にここに示すべきであろう。
The author is said to be a descendant of Kosaku Nagao, a follower of Yoshitake Kimura, but why did he make such statements in the books, which are said to be good books?  

Furthermore, one of the books also mentions that Yoshitake Kimura, Warship Magistrate, was "appointed as an envoy to the U.S.," witht the following words:    

On November 24, a ceremony was held in the Kikyo Room in Edo Castle to order Zusho (Settsunokami Yoshitake) Kimura to serve as an envoy to the United States. The "Kimura Diary" contains the following entry:
"While Kamonnokami Naosuke Ii and other senior officials attended the meeting, Izuminokami gave the following order:              I am sending you to the United States on an errand, and you must prepare for it."  

This is not a form of order to "appoint an envoy to the U.S.," because it merely says, "I am sending you to the U.S. on an errand, so be prepared. If there is an official document that states Yoshitake Kimura was appointed as an envoy or deputy envoy to the U.S., it should be officially indicated here.


つづいてこの本

 そのことについて「身内が木村喜毅の子孫」という宗像善樹著『咸臨丸の絆』(海文社・2014平成26年)では 

Also, let's take a look at the following book:
"Kanrin Maru no Kizuna (The bond of Kanrin Maru)" (Kaibundo, 2014 Heisei 26) by Yoshiki Munakata: The author claims that "My relatives are descendants of Yoshitake Kimura."

 会話体で

・「上様におかれては、木村図書に特別の思し召しがおありでござる。それは…別船を仕立て、副使の木村図書を軍艦奉行として差し遣わし、彼の地へ向かわせよ、との御沙汰である」(p6)

・「これはポウハタン号に搭乗する正使に病気や不測の事態が生じ、アメリカワシントンへ上ることが叶わざるときは、副使の木村図書が正使となりアメリカ大統領に謁見いたすべし、と御内意によるものでござる。しこうして、木村喜毅は副使といえども正使の新見と同格の御役目を担うことになるゆえ、さよう心得られたい」
(p7)

It is written in a conversational style as follows:

"The Shogun has a special intention for Zusho (Settsunokami Yoshitake) Kimura. That is... to send a separate ship to America, with Zusho Kimura , a vice envoy, on board as the Warship Magistrate." (p. 6).
"This is in accordance with the secret order that in the event of illness or other unforeseen circumstances preventing the official envoy's travel to Washington, D.C., Zusho Kimura, a vice envoy, should serve as the official envoy and be granted an audience with the President of the United States. In this way, Yoshitake Kimura, even though he is a deputy envoy, will assume the same level of responsibility as Shinmi, the official envoy, so please be aware of this." (p7)

…として将軍家茂の内命があったと記述しているが、創作会話の中でのフィクションは史実ではない。
 *この本の帯で 歴史ドキュメントとしているが、創作会話が入っていてはドキュメントとはいえない。フィクションとすべきである。

 このような人事は思わせぶりに「御内意(内命)」などと隠し立てする内容ではない。上記小栗又一が任命された例のようにむしろほかの使節たちが前もって承知しているべきことだから、公式指令が出されている。
「副使」に任命したという公式文書がないのでは「木村喜毅が遣米使節副使」説は成り立たない。

Thus, it describes that there was an unofficial order from Shogun Iemochi, but fiction in a creative conversation is not historical fact.  

*The wrapper band of this book refers to it as a historical document, but it cannot be called a document because it contains creative conversations. It should be considered fiction.  

This kind of personnel appointment is not something that should be concealed under the guise of "secret order." As in the case of Mataichi (Kozukenosuke Tadamasa) Oguri's appointment above, the other envoys should have been aware of the situation in advance, and an official directive should have been issued. In the absence of an official document stating that Kimura was appointed as "deputy envoy," the theory that "Yoshitake Kimura was the deputy envoy to the U.S." does not hold water.


 ついでにいえば、本書文中で
 「小栗が…代表と見られた」
という錯誤の文章は、古いウィキペディア「小栗上野介」記事からの転用であろう。正使新見豊前守正興も副使村垣淡路守範正も外国奉行として外国人との折衝を度々経験しているから、この文章はあたらない
 
また
 勝麟太郎が『帰国するときもアメリカ人の手助けが必要だ』といいだして、5名を雇って帰国した…。」
としているが、出発の前々年安政五年九月に案内役の米人を雇う話は始まっていて、前年安政六年十二月段階で「帰国の際も米人を雇う」ことが決まっていた。勝麟太郎とは無関係な話を勝麟太郎の功績に仕立てている。

 とはいえ本書は、木村喜毅の温厚真摯な人柄に接して心酔するようになった福沢諭吉との「絆」がいきいきと描かれた好著。
    

... Incidentally, there is the following sentence in the text of this book:
"Oguri was seen as ... the official representative."
This seemingly erroneous sentence is probably a diversion from the old Wikipedia article "Kozukenosuke Oguri." This statement is not true, since both Buzennokami Masaoki Shinmi, the official envoy, and Awajinokamii Norimasa Muragaki, the deputy envoy, experienced frequent negotiations with foreign nationals as foreign magistrates.  

There is also the following sentence:
"Rintaro (Kaishu) Katsu said, 'We need Americans' help when we return home too,' and they hired five American men to help us return home..."

However, the plan to hire Americans to serve as guides had already been discussed in September of 1858 (Ansei 5), two years prior to the sailing to the U.S. and as of December of 1859 (Ansei 6), the previous year, it had been decided that "Americans would also be hired when they return to Japan." This is a story that has nothing to do with Rintaro Katsu, but is made out to be his achievement.  

Nevertheless, this is a good book that vividly describes the "bond" between Yoshitake Kimura and Yukichi Fukuzawa, who came to be fascinated by Kimura's warm and sincere personality.
 

  【参考】
     ◆正式な遣米使節(正使・副使・目付の三使)の任命は
[Reference] 
◆ How was the official appointment of the three envoys to the U.S. done?

 

 正式な遣米使節(正使・副使・目付)の任命はすでに上記11月の木村摂津守喜毅より2ヶ月前の1859安政六年九月十三日に芙蓉の間において行われていて、次の記録で目的も役割・職名も明確に判明する。

The official appointment of the envoys to the U.S. (the official envoy, the deputy envoy, and the censor) had already taken place on October 8 (September 13 in Japanese calender), 1859, in Fuyo-no-Ma room of Edo Castle, two months before the appointment of Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura (November 1859 in Japanese calender). The following record clearly reveals both the purpose and the role and title of the positions.
    
   ○外国奉行新見豊前守村垣淡路守目付小栗又一ニ条約本書交換ノ命令書

  己未九月十三日            外国奉行
                        新見豊前守
                        村垣淡路守

                     御目付

                        小栗 又一

   亜墨利加国へ本条約為取替として被差遣候間用意可致候
      右於芙蓉間掃部頭殿御老中御列座下総守殿被仰渡


 と、まず3名にアメリカへ条約取替のために派遣することが告げられ、同時に次のように3名の役割も告げられている。

    ◯右三名ニ使節の命令書
  己未九月十三日
    新見豊前守
    村垣淡路守
    小栗 又一

  亜墨利加国へ使差遣候節新見豊前守正使村垣淡路守は副使小栗又一は立合之心得ニ可罷在事

                     《『幕末維新 外交史料集成 第一巻』禮儀門 

- Order for exchange of treaty documents to Buzennokami Shinmi and Awajinokami Muragaki, both Forein Magistrates, and Mataichi Oguri, the censor

October 8, 1859 (September 13th, 1859 in Japanese calender)

Foreign Magistrate     Buzennokami Shinmi and Awajinokami Muragami
Censor           Mataichi Oguri

"I am sending you to the United States to sign this treaty, and you must prepare for it."    
While Kamonnokami Naosuke Ii and elder council members were present in the Fuyo Room in Edo Castle, Shimousanokami delivered a message to them.                     

Thus, first, the three were told that they would be sent to the U.S. to exchange the treaty, and at the same time, the roles of the three were also announced as follows.

- Order of the three envoys  
October 8, 1859 (September 13th, 1859 in Japanese calender)    
Buzennokami Shinmi
Awajinokami Muragami
Mataichi Oguri

When we dispatch envoys to the U.S., please be advised that Buzennokami Shinmi will be the official envoy, Awajinokami Muragaki will be the vice envoy, and Mataichi Oguri will be the censor.

(“Bakumatsu Ishin Gaiko Shiryo Shusei Vol. 1” Reigimon)



    ■木村喜毅は遣米使節副使ではない

 確かに、木村喜毅の日記『奉使米利堅紀行』(遣米使節史料集成第四巻)には使節代理を命じられている次の文がある。
 「此頃閣老より命ありて、使節の内若病疾等にて差礙(さしさわりある時ハ、代りて和聖東washington)に至り予に使 節をつとむへしと・・・」
 しかしこれは上記の通りあくまでも遣米使節が万一の時の臨時代理を一月九日に命じられたもので、遣米使節(正使・副使・目付)そのものに任じられたわけではない。ここで任じられた臨時代理は上述のとおり

 1 目付小栗忠順(ポウハタン号)      安政六年九月十三日任命
 2 軍艦奉行木村喜毅(咸臨丸)       安政七年一月九日任命
 3 勘定組頭森田岡太郎(ポウハタン号)  安政七年一月九日任命  
と、
1、2、3の順に代理役を決めておいたまでのこと。

Yoshitake Kimura was not a deputy envoy to the U.S.

Indeed, in Yoshitake Kimura's diary, "Hoshi Meriken Kiko (Journey to the U.S. to serve at the behest of the Shogun)," (in Bakumatsu Ishin Gaiko Shiryo Shusei Vol. 4), there is the following sentence, in which he is ordered to act as a deputy envoy:
"The Elder council member of the Shogunate has ordered that, if the envoys are hindered by illness or disease, I shall go to Washington and serve as an envoy in their stead..."

However, as mentioned above, this was only a temporary deputy ordered on January 31 (January 9 in Japanese calender), 1860 in the event that the envoys to the U.S. should encounter any problems, and was not assigned to the envoy (the official envoy, the deputy envoy or the censor) himself. The temporary deputies assigned to the U.S. envoys were as described above, and the deputies were assigned in the following order: 1, 2, and 3.  

1. Tadamasa Oguri (on Powhatan), the censor, appointed on October 8 (September 31 in Japanese calender), 1859.
2. Yoshitake Kimura, Warship Magistrate (on Kanrin Maru), appointed on January 31 (January 9 in Japanese calender) 1860  
3. Okataro Morita (on Powhatan), head of the accounting group, appointed on January 31 (January 9 in in Japanese calender), 1860

   ◆咸臨丸の再格上げ復権が目的か
◆ Was it aimed at reinstatment of the Kanrin Maru?
 
 上記の史実を踏まえず
◆ 正使に万一の支障があった場合、代るべき副使を乗せるための船という名目で、その副使に軍艦奉行を当てることとした」(土井良三『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』)
 「正使に病気や不測の事態が生じ…」(宗像善樹『咸臨丸の絆』)

とあたかも木村喜毅一人が臨時代理役と思わせ、さらにその副使を乗せるための船が咸臨丸とするのは間違いである。

It is a mistake to ignore the above historical facts and state as follows:

- It was decided that, in the event of any trouble with the official envoy, the warship magistrate should be assigned as the deputy envoy to replace the official envoy, and the Kanrin Maru would be used to carry the deputy envoy." ("Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura" by Ryozo Doi).  
- In the event that the official envoy was sick or had some unforeseen circumstances..." ("Kanrin Maru no Kizuna" by Yoshiki Munakata)

These texts make it seem as if Yoshitake Kimura was the only temporary deputy, and further state that the ship used to carry the deputy was the Kanrin Maru.


 このことについて一月九日の下知状では

    
「御使之面々御用中若病気等に而何も差支え候節者…」

と、
「御使之面々…何(いずれ)も差し支え」つまり三使ともいずれも故障が生じた時の臨時代理であることを念押ししている。


In the directive letter of January 31 (January 9 in Japanese calender), 1860, it is stated as follows:
"If any of the three envoys should become ill or otherwise become disabled while on duty..."
As you can see here, they are reminded that they are temporary deputies only in case of failure of all three envoys.


 だから
 
正使に万一の支障…」(『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』)、
正使に病気や不測の事態が生じ…」(宗像善樹『咸臨丸の絆』)

とするのは言葉足らずの表現で、「使節に万一の…」、あるいは「正使・副使・目付に万一の…」とすべきであろう。


So, it is a poor choice of words to describe the following:
- "In the event of any trouble with the official envoy..." ("Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura")
- "In the event that the official envoy was sick or had some unforeseen circumstances..." ("Kanrin Maru no Kizuna" by Yoshiki Munakata)

Rather, they should be "In the event of any trouble with the envoys..." and "In the event that the official envoy, the deputy envoy, and the censor were sick ...".


・「正使」とだけしたのでは、ポウハタン号に乗っている副使(外国奉行)村垣淡路守範正や目付小栗忠順を無視したことになる。臨時代理だからといって軍艦奉行が外国奉行の副使
(村垣淡路守範正)と目付(小栗忠順)を飛び越えて外交の前面に出ることはありえない。

 それとも意図的に「正使に…」として、「正使の次は咸臨丸・木村喜毅」と読者にイメージさせ、戦前の咸臨丸神話が崩れた咸臨丸の再格上げを図っているのだろうか。
 見過ごすことのできない表現である。
 

If the author had meant only "the official envoy," he would have ignored Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki (foreign magistrate), the vice envoy, and Tadamasa Oguri, the censor, who were both on board the Powhatan. It is not possible for the warship magistrate to jump over the vice foreign envoy (Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki) and the censor (Tadamasan Oguri) to the forefront of diplomacy just because he is a temporary deputy.

Otherwise, did the author intentionally use the phrase "the official envoy" to make readers imagine that "Yoshitake Kimura on board the Kanrin Maru was the next in line to the official envoy" in an attempt to re-elevate the prewar myth of the Kanrin Maru, which had been destroyed? This is an expression that cannot be overlooked
.
 中公新書『軍艦奉行木村摂津守』の問題点

「副使は正使に支障があった場合のみの臨時代理役」、と副使の意味が矮小化され、正式に常任の遣米使節副使として任ぜられている外国奉行村垣淡路守範正の存在を無視、あるいは気づいていない。

②咸臨丸派遣の目的がポウハタン号に乗っている遣米使節の護衛あるいは随行という名目と実質は航海練習であったのを、「副使が乗る船が咸臨丸」として格上げを図っている。そのことは同時にポウハタン号に正式な常任の副使(外国奉行)村垣淡路守範正が乗船していることを無視、あるいは気がつかない。

③軍艦奉行木村喜毅が
「遣米使節に任ぜられた」、と格上げを図っている。
遣米使節は正使・副使・目付の三名で、随行した団員たちの間では「三使」「三公」と呼ばれている。咸臨丸には「使節」は一人も乗っていない。


Problems with "Gunkan Bogyo Kimura Settsumori (Warship Magistrate Settsunokami Kimura)" published by Chuko Shinsho

(1) The author trivializes the meaning of vice envoy by stating that a vicec envoy is a temporary deputy only in case of hindrance to the official envoy, and ignores or is unaware of the existence of Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, foreign magistrate, officially appointed as the vice envoy to the U.S.

(2) The purpose of dispatching the Kanrin Maru was to escort or accompany the Japanese envoys to the U.S. on board the Powhatan, and in effect, it was a voyage practice. However, the author is trying to elevate the status of the Kanrim Maru as "the vessel on which the vice envoy would board." At the same time, the author ignores, or is unaware of, the fact that the officially-appointed vice envoy Awajinokami Norimasa Muragaki, foreign magistrate, was on board the Powhatan.

(3) The author attempts to elevate the status of Yoshitake Kimura, warship magistrate, by saying that he was "appointed as an envoy to the U.S." The three envoys to the U.S. were the official envoy, the vice envoy, and the censor, and were referred to as the "three envoys" or "three lords" by the members of the delegation that accompanied them. There was no "envoy" on board the Kanrin Maru.

 
*もし木村喜毅がこの話を聴いたら「私は副使ではないのに後から勝手に格上げしないでほしい。私が職名を詐称しているようで恥ずかしい」と静かに呟くに違いない。木村喜毅はそういう人物、と解釈している。

 *お願い:当方の調査不足があるかもしれない。もし、木村喜毅に副使を任命している公式史料があったら、ご教示いただきたい。その時は直ちにこのページを撤回し不明をお詫びします。
                                                    (2016平成28年8月)
 

* If Yoshitake Kimura heard this story, I am sure, he would quietly say, "I was not a deputy envoy, so please don't upgrade me later without my knowledge. I am ashamed that I seem to be misrepresenting my position." I regard Yoshitake Kimura as such a sincere person.

* Please note: There may be a lack of research on our part. If you find any official documents that appoint Yoshitake Kimura as a deputy envoy, please let us know, so that we will immediately retract this page and apologize for the lack of clarity.                                       (August 28, 2016)
                                    


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 ●遣米使節の旅
 Related Pages  ● The Jorney of the Delegation to the U.S.
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シーマンシップとは(リンク・PDF)…ブルック大尉が日本人に伝えたシーマンシップ
日米交流―ブルック―(リンク)…ブルック大尉の業績をていねいに紹介している。

      遣米使節
遣米使節の行程:日本人初の世界一周の行程表
大統領の記念メダル:使節と従者全員に金・銀・銅のメダルが贈られた
小栗忠順の通貨交渉:フィラデルフィアで「ノー」といって進めさせた通貨実験は
世界一周をした名主・佐藤藤七:権田村名主が従者として世界一周
玉蟲左太夫:仙台藩士の見た世界は新鮮だった
遣米使節小栗の従者:小栗忠順の従者9名
遣米使節従者・三好権三…島根の人だった
遣米使節の業績・・・1本のネジくぎを持ち帰った小栗
日の丸を国旗に決めた遣米使節…船印だった日の丸を国印に決めた

横須賀明細一覧図を読む…図から読み取れる産業革命の地横須賀は、遣米使節の成果
   
帆船模型作家・岡崎英幸さんに感謝状…おかげで「遣米使節3船」がそろいました
トミーポルカ…アメリカで大人気となった少年通訳立石斧次郎の音楽
遣米使節とアメリカの酪農…初めてアイスクリームを食べた日本人


富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹…突然変異でうまくいったのではない。歴史には継続性がある。遣米使節の成果がここに花開いている。

大航海時代の駿府の家康公(リンク):田中勝介の太平洋横断

■Bridge of Hope(english)…JEWL発行の本で小栗上野介の業績紹介
 <Regarding Kanrin Maru>

Three ships for the Japanese mission to the U.S.: The USS Powhatan brought the mission to the U.S. by crossing the Pacific ocean and the Kanrin Maru was not used for the mission.
 Leaflet in Japanese and English, "Three ships that carried the mission to the U.S. and around the world": We have made the leaflet to advocate removing the Kanrin Maru from school textbooks.
■ J Japanese people with the "Kanrin Maru disease":: A syndrome that they feel uncomfortable unless they mention the Kanrin Maru and Kaishu Katsu in every occasion.
The Kanrin Maru myth created by Shushin textbooks:: The story of Kaishu Katsu and the Kanrin Maru was taught in "Shushin" of national textbooks, but not in their history books.
 Captain John Mercer Brooke: The Kanrin Maru did not sink thanks to Brooke and John Manjiro.
Captain John Mercer Brooke, who successfully completed the adventure of the "Kanrin Maru" (link)---Complete description of Captain Brooke's "Kanrin Maru Diary." It clearly presents the actual conditions of the voyage.
 What is seamanship (link PDF)...Seamanship that Captain Brooke passed on to the Japanese people.
Japan-U.S. Exchange - Brooke  (link)...A careful introduction to Captain Brook's accomplishments.

<Regarding the Delegation to the U.S.>

Itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the United States: The Itinerary of the first Japanese to go around the world
President's medals: Gold, silver, and bronze medals were presented to the envoys and all the followers.
 Tadamasa Oguri's Currency Negotiations: The currency experiments that made Oguri say "No" in Philadelphia.
Toshichi Sato, a village master who traveled around the world: Gonda village master traveled around the world as a follower of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri
 Sadayu Tamamushi: The world that a Sendai clan samurai saw was fresh.
Oguri's Followers on the Mission to America: Nine Followers of Tadamasa Oguri
Miyoshi Gonzo, a follower of Tadamasa Oguri in the mission to the U.S..: He was from Shimane prefecture.
 Achievements of the Japanese mission to the U.S..: Oguri brought back a screw nail.
The Japanese envoys to the U.S. decided to use the Hinomaru as the national flag They chose the Hinomaru as the national flag of Japan, which was originally a ship's seal.

Reading the "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka"": Yokosuka with advanced facilities of modern industry was crowded with visitors. We can read from the drawing that Yokosuka was the place of the Industrial Revolution in Japan.

 A letter of thanks to Mr. Hideyuki Okazaki, a model sailing ship artist: Thanks to him, we have three ships of the mission to the U.S.
 Tommy Polka: Music of Onojiro Tateishi, a boy interpreter who became very popular in the U.S.
 Mission to the U.S. and American Dairy Farming: The first Japanese to eat ice cream

Tomioka Silk Mill is a "sister" of Yokosuka Shipyard: It was not a mutation that worked. There is continuity in history. The accomplishments of the Japanese envoys to the United States are blossoming here.

Lord Ieyasu of Sunpu in the Age of Discovery (link): Shosuke Tanaka's Trans-Pacific Crossing

 Bridge of Hope(English) ... JEWL (Japanese Executive Women's League) in Los Angeles praises the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they have published.