富岡製糸場 HP東善寺  富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹 +ほんとうの「幕末明治日本の産業革命遺産」は横須賀製鉄所
The Tomioka Silk Mill is a sister of the Yokosuka Shipyard and the Yokosuka Ironworks is the real "Industrial Revolutionary Heritage of Japan at the End of the Edo and the Meiji Periods"

横須賀造船所の DNA が伝わる富岡製糸場 
世界遺産の 富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の「妹」
共通点は 蒸気機関の使用 

Tomioka Silk Mill, where the DNA of the Yokosuka Shipyard is transmitted
Tomioka Silk Mill, a World Heritage Site, is a sister of the Yokosuka Shipyard.
The two have one thing in common: the use of steam engines.

 世界遺産にしてしまった 不可解な 「明治日本の産業革命遺産」   
下部にあります 
The inexplicable "Industrial Revolutionary Heritage of Meiji Japan" 


▲赤いタスキに高草履が一等工女で、
給料は1円75銭、3等工女は1円25銭という
能率給制度をとっていた。

 錦絵 「富岡製糸場勉強之図」 朝孝 筆   東善寺蔵

 The red tasuki and high sandals are simbols of the first-class workers. They were paid at the rate of 1.75 yen per month, and the third class workers were paid 1.25 yen per month.

Nishiki-e drawing: "Study at the Tomioka Silk Mill" drawn by Tomotaka, owned by Tozenji Temple
 

           ▲
一等工女の頭上の歌額に注意
            明治6年(1873)に行啓した
            昭憲皇后(明治天皇の后・美子
はるこ)の歌
               

             
 いとぐるま  とくもめぐりて
          大御代
おおみよ
          富をたすくる 道ひらきつつ


◆「糸車が速く回転して この国を富ませる道を開いている……」と歌っています。この回転の原動力は人力や水力ではなく、横須賀造船所と同様に蒸気機関でした。

◆美子皇后の歌の上には製糸場の大きな煙突が描かれています。煙突は蒸気機関のシンボルで、この歌に対応しています。

美子皇后が蒸気機関の力に感嘆し、それで大きな煙突が画面の上まで突き抜けた構図になっている。

現代人は富岡製糸場のシンボルを「東繭倉庫」の長い木骨煉瓦の建物と思っていますが、明治初年の人々の眼は煙突=蒸気機関に注がれていたことがわかります。
   

 Note the plaque above the head of the first-class worker: It is a poem by Empress Shoken (Empress Haruko of the Meiji Emperor), who visited the Mill in 1873.

いとぐるま とくもめぐりて 大御代の
  富をたすくる 道ひらきつつ
(Itoguruma Tokumomegurite Oomiyo-no Tomiwo Tasukuru Michi Hirakitsutsu)

◆ The song says, "The spinning wheel is spinning fast, paving the way for the wealth of this country..." The spinning force for this rotation was not human power or water power, but steam engines, just as in the Yokosuka shipyard.

Above Empress Haruko's song is a picture of a large chimney of the silk mill. The chimney is a symbol of the steam engine, which corresponds to this song.

Empress Haruko is marveling at the power of the steam engine, and so the composition shows the large chimney penetrating to the top of the screen.

Modern people think that the symbol of the Tomioka Silk Mill is the long wooden brick building of the "East Cocoon Warehouse," but we can see that in the early years of the Meiji era, people's eyes were focused on the chimney or the steam engine.
 

 群馬県には日本産業革命の地・横須賀造船所のDNAが伝わる大きな産業が二つある。
それは

富岡製糸場(富岡市・今は稼働していない)【横須賀造船所の妹】 

中島飛行機(太田市・いま富士重工・スバル)【横須賀造船所の弟】  の二つ。
 参照:中島知久平
(リンク)*左記のHPで「機関学校」とあるのは「横須賀の海軍機関学校」のことです。
  
 世界文化遺産 に認定された群馬県の富岡製糸場は、その建設の最初から横須賀造船所のDNAを受け継いで建造された。富岡製糸場を日本の産業発達史の流れから理解するには、横須賀造船所との関連を知ることが大切です。

  There are two major industries in Gunma Prefecture that have inherited the DNA of the Yokosuka shipyard, the site of Japan's industrial revolution.

They are Tomioka Silk Mill (Tomioka City, no longer in operation) [sister of Yokosuka Shipyard] and
Nakajima Airplane (Ota City, now Fuji Heavy Industries and Subaru) [younger brother of the Yokosuka Shipyard].

Reference: Chikuhei Nakajima (link) * The term "engine school" in the website refers to the "Naval Engine School in Yokosuka."

The Tomioka Silk Mill in Gunma Prefecture, recognized as a World Heritage Site, was built with the DNA of the Yokosuka Shipyard from the beginning of its construction. In order to understand the Tomioka Silk Mill from the perspective of Japan's history of industrial development, it is important to understand its relationship with the Yokosuka Shipyard.
 
パンフレット  ―富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹―
日本近代化の源泉・横須賀造船所』
を作りました!
16p ¥400
 
制作発行:東善寺 2014平成26年8月
Broshure:
"Tomioka Silk Mill is a sister of Yokosuka Shipyard -
Yokosuka Shipyard, the Source of Japanese Modernization"!
16 pages, 400 yen


Produced and published by Tozenji Temple, August 2014 (Heisei 26).
 


◇わずか50日で設計図完成-横須賀造船所「ロープ工場
(製綱所)」がモデル   
 
横須賀製鉄所の建設開始は慶応元年(1865)、建設費240万ドルで明治2年(1869)にほぼ完成しフル稼働に入る。
 富岡製糸場は明治4年(1871)に建設を開始し、建設費24万ドルで翌明治5年(1872)に完成した。

富岡製糸場の設計図は横須賀造船所の建築担当技師たちが描き、明治4年に技師の一人、建築担当技師のNo.3、バスチャンが冨岡に派遣されて工事を進めた。 
  バスチャンは横須賀から冨岡へ日本人大工10名位を連れて行った。書かれた設計図はフランス語、寸法はメートルだったから、普通の日本人大工には読めなかったのだ。
                  
                  ▲東置繭倉庫 104m
 冨岡製糸場の設計図を50日という短期間に仕上げられたのは、横須賀造船所にモデルとなる建物「製綱所」があったから。 横須賀造船所の長い建物「製綱所」は「金ヘン」ではなく「糸ヘン」で、「ロープ工場」ということ。長さ273メートルもの板壁の建物だった。その後民間にもロープ工場が出来、品質も良くなったので明治21年に「製鋼所」は操業を停止し、のちに解体された。今になれば惜しかった!  
              
        *以下の絵図は「横須賀明細一覧図」明治16年 より

  The design for the Tomioka Silk Mill was completed in just 50 days - modeled after the Yokosuka Shipyard's rope factory.

Construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks began in 1865 at a cost of $2.4 million, and was almost completed and put into full operation in 1869.

Construction of the Tomioka Silk Mill began in 1871, and was completed in 1872 at a cost of $240,000.

The blueprints for the Tomioka Silk Mill were drawn by the architectural engineers of the Yokosuka Shipyard, and in 1871, one of the engineers, architectural engineer No. 3 Edmond Auguste Bastien, was sent to Tomioka to work on the mill.
 

Bastien took about 10 Japanese carpenters from Yokosuka to Tomioka. The written blueprints were in French and the measurements were in meters, so ordinary Japanese carpenters could not read them.

                  
 (The avove photo) East cocoon warehouse 104m

The reason why the plans for the Tomioka Silk Mill were completed in 50 days was because there was a model building at the Yokosuka Shipyard, the "Rope Factory (製綱所)."
 

The ("綱" of) "製綱所," long building at Yokosuka Shipyard, does not have "釒(Kanehen)" but "糸(Itohen)," meaning it is a "rope factory." It was a 273-meter long building with plank walls. Later, rope factories were built in the private sector and the quality of the rope improved, so in 1888, the "Rope Factory" at the Yokosuka Shipyard ceased operations and was later dismantled. Now that would have been a shame!
  

The following drawings are from "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka" (Meiji 16).
 
  
 製鋼所  
外観は富岡製糸場によく似ている。ただし、
長さ273m、初め板壁だった。
        「横須賀明細一覧図」
より(東善寺蔵)
The Rope Factory:
The exterior of the factory resembles that of the Tomioka Silk Mill. However, it was 273meters long and had wooden walls. (the drawing owned by Tozenji)

 
時計塔 
製綱所の先端の時計が日本人工員に時間順守・定時就労を習慣づけた
 
The Clock Tower:
The clock tower at the top of the Rope Factory made it a habit for Japanese workers to be punctual and work on time.
  
  
▲製綱所 季刊 「大林」47-造船所― より
The Rope Factory: From "Obayashi Quarterly" 47: Shipyard 
   
        ▲製綱所は慶応2年から蒸気機関で稼働した
右が現在のダイエー付近   提供:安池尋幸氏
  The Rope Factory began operating with steam engines in 1866 (Keio 2). The right side of the photo is today's Daiei area.                       Courtesy of Mr. Hiroyuki Yasuike

◇蒸気機関だから―
煙突と水槽
 
 人類の工業の原動力は、人力―牛馬の力―水力・風力―蒸気機関 と進歩してきた。幕末の日本も水力まで。
…でも横須賀に大きな川はない。横須賀製鉄所は最初から蒸気機関を原動力としていた。富岡製糸場も蒸気機関をはじめから使った。蒸気機関は大量の石炭を焚き、水を熱湯に変える。煙突と水槽はそのためのもの。たんに「繭を煮るため」だけではない。


日本で最初に蒸気機関を据え付けた本格的な総合工場・横須賀造船所はまさに「日本の産業革命の地」であった。

  ◇ The Steam Engine needs Chimney and Water Tank.
 
The driving force of human industry has progressed from human power, cattle power, horse power, water power, wind power, and steam engines. By the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan was also powered by powers up to water power.

However, Yokosuka has no big river. The Yokosuka Ironworks was powered by steam engines from the beginning. The Tomioka Silk Mill also used steam engines from the beginning. Steam engines burn large amounts of coal and turn water into boiling water. The chimney and the water tanks are for that purpose. It was not just for boiling cocoons.

The Yokosuka Shipyard, the first full-scale integrated factory in Japan to install steam engines, was truly the "site of Japan's industrial revolution.
 
横須賀造船所の煙突 
スチームハンマーによる鍛造、ドックの水の出し入れなど、すべての機械工作と操作が蒸気機関を原動力として操作された。そのための煙突。   
  Chimney at Yokosuka Shipyard 

All mechanical work and operations, such as forging with steam hammers and moving water in and out of the docks, were operated using steam engines as the driving force. That is the reason why the chimney was there.
 
  
             ▲富岡製糸場の煙突と水槽 
 この版画も器械製糸の原動力・蒸気機関に注目した構図。水槽は初めレンガの四角い水槽。水漏れのためリベット打ちの鉄水槽に作り替えた。       版画「富岡製糸場」 東善寺蔵
The chimney and the water tank at the Tomioka Silk Mill

This woodblock print is another composition that focuses on the steam engine, the driving force of instrumental silk production. The water tank was originally a square brick tank, but due to water leakage, it was replaced with a riveted iron tank.
   

Woodblock Print "Tomioka Silk Mill," collection of Tozenji Temple 

▲3トン・スチームハンマーも平成9年まで石炭と水の蒸気機関で稼働した 
横須賀造船所
              ▲ マザーマシン 
まずこのハンマーであらゆる工作機械を作り、次に工具や部品を作って、それから船の製作に入る。大元の機械だからマザーマシンと呼ばれた。
オランダ・ロッテルダム1865年製。重要文化財 
 The 3-ton steam hammer was operated by coal and water steam engines until 1997 at the Yokosuka Shipyard.

First, this hammer was used to make all kinds of machine tools, then tools and parts, and then the ship was built. Because it was such a fundamental machine, it was called the mother machine.

Made in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 1865. Important Cultural Property
 
▲現在は鉄の円形水槽  富岡製糸場 ▲リベットで接合されている
現在非公開です
 ▲ 鉄水槽は横須賀製鉄所に先駆けて幕末に設置された横浜製鉄所の製作で、明治6年に船体製作技術によるリベット打ちで作られた。 直径15m。
  Now, there is a steel circular water tank at Tomioka Silk Mill. Currently closed to the public.

The steel water tank was manufactured by the Yokohama Ironworks, which was established at the end of the Edo period before the Yokosuka Ironworks, and was riveted in 1873 using shipbuilding techniques. It is 15 meters in diameter.
        ◇経営にも横須賀が影響
 
 建物や施設のハードだけでなく横須賀造船所も富岡製糸場も「フランス式の経営」を採用して、ソフト面もフランス人に任せた所に特徴がある。
 横須賀造船所では従業員の職場内学校として「黌舎・
こうしゃ」が職工を育て、後に設けられた「機関学校」がさらに上級の技師を育てた。慶応元年の工事着工時から始まったフランス人の日曜休日制度が日本人職員にも波及し、従業員の健康診断、年功給、有給休暇制度、複式簿記が採用され、日本近代化の先取りがされていた。

 それらは富岡製糸場の経営にも応用された。

 横須賀造船所も富岡製糸場も建物や設備のハード面だけでなく、このように経営のソフト面でもフランス式を採用したところに成功のカギがあった。

 じつは中国も横須賀と同じ時期に、やはりフランスの指導で横須賀と同規模の造船所「福州船政局」を建設したが、ソフト面で中国式を通したため、「福州船政局」は現在でも小規模な造船所である。

  ◇ The influence of Yokosuka on management
 
Both the Yokosuka Shipyard and the Tomioka Silk Mill are characterized not only by the hardware of their buildings and facilities, but also by the fact that they adopted the "French style of management" and left the work to the French.

At the Yokosuka Shipyard, the "Kosha School" was established to train workers, and the "Engine School" was established later to train more advanced engineers. The French Sunday holiday system, which started when construction began in 1865 (Keio 1), spread to the Japanese employees, and employee health checkups, seniority pay, a paid vacation system, and double-entry bookkeeping were adopted, anticipating the modernization of Japan.

These were also applied to the management of the Tomioka Silk Mill.

The key to the success of both the Yokosuka Shipyard and the Tomioka Silk Mill was the adoption of the French style not only in the hardware of buildings and facilities, but also in the software of management.

In fact, at the same time as Yokosuka, China also built a shipyard of the same scale as Yokosuka, "Fuzhou Shipyard," under the guidance of France, but since the Chinese style was adopted in the software aspect, "Fuzhou Shipyard" is still a small shipyard today.
 
黌舎 
仏語で数学、物理など教え、のちの造船大国を生み出す職工を育てた。隣の「醫室」で医師サバティエが医療のかたわら、日本の植物調査を行い、フランスから持ち込んだサクランボ、ブドウ、イチゴなどが各地に広まった。
 
Kosha School:
The school taught mathematics, physics, and other subjects in French, and nurtured the craftsmen who would later become Japan's shipbuilding powerhouse. In the adjacent medical room, the doctor Paul Amédée Ludovic Savatier conducted research on Japanese plants while providing medical care, and cherries, grapes, and strawberries brought from France spread throughout the country.
 
 
海軍機関学校  
ゼロ戦のエンジンを製作したことで知られる中島飛行機を興した中島知久平など、全国から優秀な若者が学んだ。東大工学部生もここで1年の実地教育を受け卒業単位とした。
 
 Naval Engineering School:
The school was a place where talented young people from all over Japan studied, including Chikuhei Nakajima, who founded Nakajima Aircraft Company, known for manufacturing the engine for the Zero fighter. Students of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Tokyo also received one year of practical education here, which was used as graduation credits.
Yokosuka Shipyard, "French style that overlaps with Tomioka"
Introduced in "Gunma Silk Travelogue" of Asahi Shimbun on September 20, 2014
  ▲朝日新聞平成26年9月20日群馬版
「ぐんまシルク紀行」で紹介されました。
 

  問題は
中学・高校の歴史教科書で、上記のような幕末に建設が始まった横須賀造船所の価値を認めず、日本近代化の例として明治以後の八幡製鐵所や長崎造船所、富岡製糸場だけあげて、「日本の近代化は明治政府が進めた……」と教えていること。 
参考ページ…咸臨丸病の日本人 も関連しているように思う。

 The problem is that junior high and high school history textbooks do not recognize the value of the Yokosuka shipyard, which began construction at the end of the Edo period, and only give the Yawata Ironworks, Nagasaki Shipyard, and Tomioka Silk Mill after the Meiji period as examples of Japanese modernization, and teach that "Japan's modernization was promoted by the Meiji government ...

Reference page: Japanese people with the Kanrin Maru disease seems to be related to this.
 
ほんとうの「幕末明治の産業革命遺産」は横須賀製鉄所

 The real "Industrial Revolution Heritage of the end of the Edo and Maiji Periods" is the Yokosuka Ironworks
 **横須賀製鉄所を欠いた**
 政府の

「明治日本の産業革命遺産」世界遺産登録運動
は不可解
                                 2015平成27年5月
The Japanese government's campaign to register "The World Heritage Site Registration Movement" without the Yokosuka Ironworks is uncomprehensible.                  May 2015 (Heisei 27)

 
2015平成27年5月6日

 5月4日、イコモス(国際記念物遺産会議)が日本政府が進める「明治日本の産業革命遺産-製鉄・鉄鋼、造船、石炭産業-」を登録するよう勧告した、というニュースが流れた。マスコミも一斉に大きく報じている。

 しかし、あげられた23候補地を見ると、横綱が欠けた相撲興行の感を否めない。なぜ横綱(横須賀製鉄所)を外したのか。
 

下の表の 1原動力、 2設立年 をチェックしてみよう】
◯1,
産業革命の基本は蒸気機関を原動力とする、は中学生も知っていること。
候補に挙げられた施設の中で水力を原動力とするものを「産業革命遺産」にあげるのは不適切であろう。先人の努力は認めるが「近代化の努力遺産」とでもすべきものである。

例:薩摩の島津斉彬公が進めた近代化の遺跡「集成館」についていえば、幕末によくぞこれだけのことをしたと感心するが、反射炉が途中で挫折したのは、原動力を水力に頼らざるを得なかったから、→十分な風力が得られず、→溶鉱炉を高温にできなかったので→生産性に欠けた。

例:幕末に大炮の製造で空洞をくり抜く(ライフリング)のに、水力で一昼夜かかって30㌢しか開けられなかった。

当時の日本人の努力を否定するものではないが、日本の実情は残念ながらここまでだった。

◯2,
明治以前に蒸気機関を据えた本格的な産業工場はどこか。

間違いなく   
日本で最初に
本格的な蒸気機関を据えて原動力とした総合工場は横須賀製鉄所

 慶応元年に着工、1866慶応2年に完成した製綱所(日本最初のロープ工場)は蒸気機関を原動力として日本最初のロープ工場として稼働し、1869明治2年にはほぼ(ドックは未完成)全施設がフル稼働している。

 昨年世界遺産・国宝に認定された富岡製糸場は横須賀製鉄所の影響を強く受けて1871明治4年に着工、明治5年から稼働していることは上記の通り。

*もともとの横須賀製鉄所はたんなる「軍艦製造所」ではない。明治以後の政治が海軍専用工場とし、軍港化していったもの*
  May 6, 2015 (Heisei 27)

On May 4, news broke that Icomos (International Council on Monuments and Sites) had recommended that the Japanese government's "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japan - Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding, and Coal Industries" be registered. The news was widely reported by the mass media.

However, looking at the 23 candidate sites listed, it is hard to deny the feeling that this is a sumo show with no Yokozuna. Why did they leave out the Yokozuna (Yokosuka Ironworks)?
 

Let's take a look at the driving force and the year of establishment in the table below.


1. Even junior high school students know that the basic principle of the Industrial Revolution was to use steam engines as the driving force.

It would be inappropriate to list as "Industrial Revolution Heritage" those facilities that are powered by water power. The efforts of our predecessors are acknowledged, but they should be called "Heritage of Modernization Efforts."

For example: When it comes to the Shuseikan, a relic of modernization promoted by Nariakira Shimazu of Satsuma, it is impressive that he did so much at the end of the Edo period. However, the reverberatory furnace failed in the middle of the project because it had to rely on water power for the driving force, which did not provide enough wind power, and the blast furnace could not be heated to a high temperature, which resulted in a lack of productivity.

For example: At the end of the Edo period, it took a day and a night of hydraulic power to hollow out the cavities (rifling) used in the manufacture of guns, and only 30 centimeters of the cavities could be opened.

This is not to deny the efforts of the Japanese people at the time, but unfortunately the actual situation in Japan was only up to this point.


2. Where were the full-scale industrial plants equipped with steam engines before the Meiji era?

Definitely,
the Yokosuka Ironworks was the first comprehensive factory in Japan to use full-scale steam engines as a driving force.

Construction of the rope factory began in 1865 (Keio 1) and it was completed in 1866 (Keio 2). The factory was Japan's first rope factory powered by the steam engine, and all facilities were almost fully operational in 1869 (the dock was not yet completed).  

As mentioned above, the Tomioka Silk Mill, which was recognized as a World Heritage Site and National Treasure last year, was strongly influenced by the Yokosuka Ironworks, and its construction began in 1871 and the mill became in operation in 1871 (Meiji 4).

(Note) The original Yokosuka Ironworks was not just a "warship manufacturing plant." After the Meiji era, the government made it a dedicated naval plant and turned it into a military facility.
 政府が進める「明治日本の産業革命遺産」の世界遺産  候補地( 23施設)       
   下記の
1原動力,2建設年 は村上泰賢が追加・調査
                        空欄は調査中
 
 Candidate Sites for the "Industrial Revolutionary Heritage of Meiji Japan" promoted by the Japanese Government as World Heritage Sites (23 facilities)  
     
In the following chart, "1 driving force" and "2 construction year" were surveyed and added by Taiken Murakami. Blank spaces are under investigation.
構成施設
Facility
所在地
Location
1原動力
1 Driving force
2 建設年
2 Construction year
萩反射炉 *試験炉で非実用
Hagi Reflection Furnace
* Test furnace, not for practical use.
山口県萩市
Hagi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture
水力 安政2年
1855
恵美須ヶ鼻造船所跡
Ebisugahana Shipyard Site
安政3年
1856
大板山たたら製鉄遺跡
Oitayama Tattara Iron Manufacturing Site
足踏みフイゴ
Foot-operated fiddler
江戸中期~
Mid-Edo period
萩城下町
Hagi Castle Town
 ―  ―
松下村塾
Matsushita Sonjuku School
 ―  ―
旧集成館
Former Shuseikan
鹿児島市
Kagoshima City
水力
Water Power
嘉永5年~
1852-
寺山炭窯跡
Ruins of Terayama Charcoal Kiln
 ー 安政5年
1858
関吉の疎水溝(集成館の原動力)
Sekiyoshi's hydropathic ditch (the driving force behind Shuseikan)
水力源
Water power source
嘉永5年
1852
韮山反射炉
Nirayama Reflection Furnace
静岡県伊豆の国市
Izunokuni City, Shizuoka Prefecture
水力
Hydraulic power
安政元年~安政5年
1854~1858

10 橋野鉄鉱山・高炉跡
Hashino Iron Mine and Blast Furnace Site
岩手県釜石市
Kamaishi City, Iwate Prefecture
水力
Hydraulic power
安政5年
1858
11 三重津海軍所跡
Site of Miezu Naval Station
佐賀市
Saga City, Saga Prefecture
安政5年
1858
12 小菅修船場跡
Site of Kosuge Shipyard
長崎市
Nagasaki City, Nagasaki Prefecture
蒸気機関
Steam engine
1869年1月(明治元年12月)
January 1868
13 三菱長崎造船所第三船渠
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard No. 3 Dock
蒸気機関
Steam engine
明治36年
1903
14 三菱長崎造船所
ジャイアント・カンチレバークレーン

Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard
Giant Cantilever Crane
蒸気機関
Steam engine
明治42年
1909
15 三菱長崎造船所旧木型場
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, Old Wood Moulding Shop
明治31年
1898
16 三菱長崎造船所占勝閣
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard - Senshokaku
明治37年
1904
17 高島炭鉱
Takashima Coal Mine
蒸気機関?
Steam engine?
明治4年
1868
18 端島炭鉱
Hashima Coal Mine
蒸気機関?
Steam engine?
明治23年
1890
19 旧グラバー邸
Former Glover residence
 ― 文久3年
1863
20 三池炭鉱、三池港
Miike Coal Mine, Miike Port
福岡県大牟田市 熊本県荒尾市
Omuta City, Fukuoka Prefecture
Arao City, Kumamoto Prefecture
 ― 明治34年~明治41年
1901~1908
21 三角西(旧)港
Mikaku Nishi (Old) Port
熊本県宇城市
Uki City, Kumamoto Prefecture
 ― 明治20年
1887
22 官営八幡製鐵所
Government-owned Yawata Ironworks
北九州市
Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Prefecture
蒸気機関
Steam engine
明治32年
1899
23 遠賀川水源地ポンプ室
Ongagawa River Water Source Pump Room
福岡県中間市
Nakama City, Fukuoka Prefecture
蒸気機関
Steam engine
明治43年
1910
     参   考      Reference
横須賀製鉄所(造船所)
Yokosuka Ironworks (Shipyard)
横須賀市
Yokosuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture
蒸気機関 1865慶応元年着工~慶応年間に順次稼働~1869明治2年ほぼフル稼働
Steam Engine
The construction started in 1865. The operation started sequentially during the Keio period (1865-1868). By 1869, it was almost in full operation.
富岡製糸場(世界遺産)
Tomioka Silk Mill (World Heritage Site)
群馬県富岡市
Tomioka City, Gunma Prefecture
蒸気機関  1872明治5年
Steam engine
It became in operation in 1872

◯司馬遼太郎が
「横須賀はかつて日本近代工学のいっさいの源泉だった」(『三浦半島記』)と見抜いたのはこの 1,蒸気機関であること、 2、建設年の早期性 を指している。

日本の近代化は明治以前の幕末に始まっていたことがわかる。

【不可解】
◯1,なぜはじめのタイトルが「明治日本の産業革命遺産ー九州・山口と関連遺跡ー」だったのか。
 このサブタイトルは露骨でまさに「明治の薩長政府が日本の近代化を進めた」と強調したいための「九州・山口」ではないか。

◯2, なぜ「萩城下町」「松下村塾」「グラバー邸」が産業革命遺産になるのか。・松下村塾で石炭を掘り、萩で造船が始まったとでもいうのか…

 当初は「長崎の教会群とキリスト教関連遺産」推薦運動が先行していたのを政府が抑えて、「明治日本の産業革命遺産
―製鉄・鉄鋼、造船、石炭産業―」を優先させたという。
 候補地23の施設に含まれる「松下村塾」や「萩城下町」、「グラバー邸」からからどんな「製鉄・鉄鋼、造船、石炭産業」が生まれ、なぜ産業革命遺産になるのだろう。どうこじつけても、不可解。

◯3,明治の産業革命を進めることができた背景に
 「260年間戦争をしなかった江戸時代に日本人が培った学問教養文化」
がある。
例:当時の日本は識字率8割の(いまでも)驚異的な国だった。

 それが→→明治以降~昭和20年敗戦まで77年間、日本は戦争続きの国だった→→昭和20年以降~現在まで70年間、日本は戦争をしない国だった。だから東日本大震災のあの悲惨な大災害にもなんとか耐えられた。どこかの国と戦争中だったら軍事費がかさんで災害支援などできなかったろう。→→これから日本はどこへ。


◯4,中学高校の歴史教科書でも「工業の近代化」は長崎造船所や富岡製糸場まで。 
 お子さんやお孫さんの中学高校の歴史教科書や副読本をご覧ください。いまだに横須賀製鉄所が欠落しています。


◯5,このようなずさんな世界遺産候補地がそのまま通るとしたら、「ユネスコの世界遺産」も品位と価値が疑われるものになる。


 When Ryotaro Shiba wrote, "Yokosuka was once the source of all modern Japanese engineering" (Miura Peninsular Chronicles), he was referring to the steam engine and the early date of construction.

We now know that
the modernization of Japan began at the end of the Edo period, before the Meiji period.

【I don't understand:】

1. Why was the first title "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japa - Kyushu, Yamaguchi and Related Sites"?:

I think the subtitle is blatant, and the "Kyushu-Yamaguchi" is just to emphasize that the Satcho (Kagoshima and Yamaguchi Prefectures) governments of the Meiji era promoted the modernization of Japan.

2. Why are "Hagi Castle Town," "Matsushita-sonjuku" and "Glover's Residence" designated as Industrial Revolution Heritage sites? Are they saying that coal was mined at Matsushita-sonjuku and shipbuilding started at Hagi?

Initially, a campaign to nominate the "Nagasaki Churches and Christian Sites" was in the lead, but the government suppressed it and gave priority to the "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japan - Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding, and Coal Industries."

What kind of "iron and steel making, shipbuilding, and coal industry" was born from the "Matsushita-sonjuku," "Hagi Castle Town," and "Glover's Residence," which are included in the 23 candidate sites, and why would they become Industrial Revolution Heritage sites? No matter how they may try to explain it, it is incomprehensible.

3. The background that allowed the industrial revolution of the Meiji era to proceed is "the culture of learning that the Japanese people cultivated during the Edo era, when there were no wars for 260 years." For example, at that time, Japan had a literacy rate of 80%, which is still astounding.

For 77 years from the Meiji era to the defeat in 1945, Japan was a country of continuous wars, and for 70 years from 1945 to the present, Japan has been a country of no wars. That's why we managed to endure the tragic catastrophe of the Great East Japan Earthquake. If Japan had been at war with some other country, it would have been unable to provide disaster relief due to the high military costs. →→Where will Japan go from here?

4. Even in junior high and high school history textbooks, "industrial modernization" is limited to the Nagasaki Shipyard and the Tomioka Silk Mill.
 

Take a look at your children's and grandchildren's junior high and high school history textbooks and supplementary reading materials. The Yokosuka Ironworks is still missing.

5. If such sloppy World Heritage candidate sites are allowed to go through, the dignity and value of "UNESCO's World Heritage" will be questioned.
    
   
今回の世界遺産について事情通の方から
 次のような解説がありました。
2015平成27年5月(転載)  The following is a commentary from a person familiar with the situation regarding this World Heritage Site.
 
May 2015 (reprinted)
 
 … 今回の登録の発端は「九州・山口の近代化産業遺産群」として、地元自治体が文化庁の応募にこたえ運動を始めたものです。が、運動が進んだ ところで、急きょ全国規模に広げ、名称を「日本の近代化遺産群-九州・山口及び関連地域」とし、内閣官房が主導することになりました。

 その後、推薦段階では「明治日本の産業革命遺産-
九州・山口及び関連地域」となり、最終的には「明治日本の産業革命遺産―製鉄・鉄鋼、造船、石炭 産業―」となりました。運動を進めた地元自治体は、トンビに油揚げをさらわれてしまったわけです。

 そのトンビが、先の戦争を賛美し日本の軍事大国化をねらう安倍政権だったわけです。ですから、名前に冠した「産業革命」とは無縁の松下村塾や萩城下町が入ったり、蒸気機関を使う工業化とは関係ない資産が入ったり・・・と矛盾だらけの世界遺産になってしまったわけです。ちなみに松下村塾や 萩城下町は安倍首相の地元である山口県にあります。

 さらに、昨年の「富士山」の登録に注文がついたり、「武家の古都・鎌倉」が無条件に落選させられたのとは真逆で、すべての構成資産が無条件で登録 されることになったことから、安倍政権のかなりなテコ入れを感じざるを得ません。

 事前予測では、産業革命遺産とは無縁のものがある、産業革命でくくるには時期的な問題がある、軍艦島のように保存に値しないものがある・・・など 等、多くは登録勧告がでたとしても相当な注文がつくのではないかというものでした。

 真相はわかりませんが、ユネスコの世界遺産事業そのものに疑問符を付けざるを得ないことになってしまいました。

 ... The registration of the World Heritage Site began with a campaign by the local government in response to an application by the Agency for Cultural Affairs to register it as a "group of modern industrial heritage sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi." However, as the campaign progressed, it was hastily expanded to a nationwide scale, and the name was changed to "Japan's Modernization Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi and Related Areas," with the Cabinet Secretariat taking the lead.

Later, at the nomination stage, the name was changed to "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japan -
Kyushu, Yamaguchi and Related Areas," and finally to "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japan - Iron and Steel, Shipbuilding, and Coal Industries." The local government, which had promoted the movement, was snatched out of the frying pan by the dragonfly.

That dragonfly was the Abe administration, which glorifies the last war and aims to make Japan a military power. This is why the World Heritage Site is full of contradictions, such as the inclusion of Matsushita-sonjuku and Hagi Castle Town, which have nothing to do with the "Industrial Revolution" named after them, and the inclusion of assets that have nothing to do with industrialization using steam engines. Incidentally, the Matsushita-sonjuku and the Hagi Castle Town are located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Prime Minister Abe's hometown.

In addition, the fact that all of the components of the World Heritage Sites were unconditionally registered, in direct contrast to last year's order to register Mount Fuji and the unconditional rejection of Kamakura, the ancient capital of samurai families, shows the Abe administration's strong commitment.

According to preliminary predictions, there are some sites that are not related to the Industrial Revolution Heritage, there are some sites that are too late to be included in the Industrial Revolution, and there are some sites such as Gunkanjima that are not worthy of preservation.

I don't know what the truth is, but I have no choice but to put a question mark on the UNESCO World Heritage project itself.

 小栗ファンのM氏から次のような情報がありました。
2015平成27年6月16日(転載)
Mr. M, a fan of Oguri, gave us the following information.
June 16, 2015 (reprinted)
 
 
 
「産業革命」の語源から
 今回の遺産登録が、三菱財閥設立の学校を卒業し長州を地盤とする政治家に、あまりにも諂(へつら)ったものであることを恥ずかしく思っています。
 
 およそ「革命」という言葉を嫌う人たちが、産業革命と安易に口にするのはその真意を知らないからで、不勉強の謗(そし)りは免れません。
 
 多分、産業革命=「技術革命」と思い込み、もう一つの側面に「社会革命」があったからこそ「産業」と名付けられたことに、疑いも持っていないからと思われます。
 
 私の知っているところでは、“Industrial Revolution”のindustrial(形容詞)は、名詞のindustry(ラテン語のindustriaが語源で、勤勉、熱心の意味)がもとですが、古くからあった形容詞のindustrious(勤勉な、熱心な)では、人力→機械化=工業化という時代の変化を表現するのに相応しくないのでindustrialという新語が考え出されたということです。
 
 industryが工業の意味にも使われるようになったのは後になってからで、産業革命の少し前に出版された国富論の中でアダム・スミスはindustryを全て勤勉、勤労の意味に使っています。その形容詞industriousは industrious people、industrious poor(勤勉な貧民、勤労貧民) という使い方で、industrialは出てきません。
 
 水力利用の自動織機、蒸気機関、鉄道などの発明による技術上の変化は、一方で、労働者階級の窮状、労働組合の結成、社会主義の勃興などという社会上の変化を引き起こし、それらがあまりにも急速であったためrevolutionという激しい語が使われ、「技術革命」+「社会革命」=「産業革命」と名付けられたわけです。
 
 産業革命発祥の地イギリスでは、これを至上主義とするのみでなく、マイナスの側面も評価した議論(論文、著書など)がたくさんあります。
 どうも最近の日本では明治維新にしろ、戦後の経済復興にしろ、プラスの側面の評価に片寄り過ぎているようで、今回の遺産登録に対し韓国が異を唱えているのはマイナスの側面があの人たちに極端に表れているためと思われます。


 From the etymology of the word "industrial revolution

I am embarrassed that the registration of this heritage site is too flattering to the politician who graduated from the school established by Mitsubishi Zaibatsu and are based in Choshu (Yamaguchi Prefecture).

People who dislike the word "revolution" often refer to it as the Industrial Revolution because they do not know its true meaning.

Probably because they think that the Industrial Revolution is a "technological revolution" and have no doubt that it was named "industrial" because there was a "social revolution" on the other side.

As far as I know, the adjective "industrial" in "Industrial Revolution" is based on the noun "industry" (from the Latin "industria," meaning hard work, diligence). However, the old adjective "industrious" was not appropriate to describe the change of the times from manpower to mechanization, so the new word "industrial" was invented.

It was only later that the word of industry came to mean industry as well, and in his Wealth of Nations, published shortly before the Industrial Revolution, Adam Smith used industry to mean all industriousness and hard work. The adjective "industrious" is used to refer to industrious people and the industrious poor, without the word "industrial."

The technological changes brought about by inventions such as the water-powered automatic loom, the steam engine, and the railroad, on the other hand, caused social changes such as the plight of the working class, the formation of labor unions, and the rise of socialism. And because they were so rapid, the violent word revolution was used, and the term "technological revolution" + "social revolution" = "industrial revolution".

In the United Kingdom, the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, there are many discussions (articles, books, etc.) that evaluate not only the supremacy of this revolution but also its negative aspects. It seems that in Japan, whether it is the Meiji Restoration or the post-war economic revival, too much emphasis has been placed on the positive aspects, and the reason why South Korea is objecting to the registration of this heritage site is because the negative aspects are extremely visible to them.

 
 
関連ページ

横須賀明細一覧図を読む:近代工業の先端設備をそろえ、多くの見物客でにぎわった
「土蔵付き売家」の横須賀造船所のページ
「土蔵付き売り据え」横須賀造船所は売家につける土蔵…小栗上野介の言葉

世界遺産 欧米追随の維新を美化、ちゃっかり長州松下村塾(リンク)
「21世紀に伝えたい港湾遺産:横須賀ドライドック」:及び 「フランソワ レオンス ヴェルニー技師長」・日本埋立浚渫協会〈リンク)


Related Pages

Reading the "Detailed Drwing of Yokosuka"": Yokosuka with advanced facilities of modern industry was crowded with visitors.
Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"
"Property to be sold with a storehouse attched" The Yokosuka Shipyard is a storehouse attached to a house for sale... The words of Kozukenosuke Oguri
World Heritage Site: shrewd Choshu's Matsushita-sonjuku, which glorifies the Meiji Restoration that followed the West (link)
"Port heritage to be handed down to the 21st century: Yokosuka Dry Dock" and "Chief Engineer François Léonce Verney", Japan Dredging and Reclamation Engineering Association (link)