住職のコラム(東善寺)  ●    マザーマシン ・ ほんとうの「幕末明治日本の産業革命の地」横須賀造船所を支えた
Priest's Column (Tozenji Temple)  ● The Mother Machine that supported the Yokosuka Shipyard, the true site of the Industrial Revolution of Japan in late Edo and Meiji periods.
マザーマシンに感動
Impressed by the Mother Machine


 
日本の産業革命の地・横須賀
従来、日本の工業の原動力は人力―牛馬ー水車までだった。横須賀製鉄所ははじめから蒸気機関を原動力としていたから「蒸気機関を原動力とする日本最初の総合工場」といえる。まさに日本の産業革命の地である。司馬遼太郎が「日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(「三浦半島記」)と書いたのは、このことを指す。
Yokosuka, the Site of Japan's Industrial Revolution
In the past, the driving force of Japanese industry was human power, cattle and horses, and even water wheels. Since the Yokosuka Ironworks was powered by steam engines from the beginning, it can be called "Japan's first integrated plant powered by the steam engine. It is truly the site of Japan's industrial revolution. This is what Ryotaro Shiba meant when he wrote that it was "the source of all modern engineering in Japan." (Miura Peninsula Chronicles)


 
 「知事からは、いつも現場へ出るようにと言われますが……」 新しい県庁で会った県の幹部は、いま駐車場工事中でマイカー通勤が 禁止ということもあって、高層の部屋で仕事をしていると外へ出かけ るのがついおっくうになる、とこぼした。現場へ出ないで仕事をすると、思わぬミスを招くこともあろう。高層化したらよけい現場に出る ことを心がけてほしいものだ。

 現場といえば、今は米軍基地になっている横須賀造船所に、幕末に 購入したハンマーが残っていると聞いて、1996平成8年11月に見学に入った。案内されて驚いたのはその大きなこと。高さ約五メートルも ある半円形の鉄のアーチがどっしり据えられている。しかも、工場長 は「ちょうど仕事が入っているので動かします」と言う。
"The governor is always telling us to go out to the field. ......" A prefectural official I (Taiken Murakami) met at the new prefectural office told me that he was working at an upper floor room of a high-rise building and became reluctant to go out because commuting by car was prohibited due to the construction of the parking lot. If the government staff work without seeing the field, they may make unexpected mistakes. I hope they will go out to the field as much as possible especially when they have to work in high-rise buildings.  

Speaking of the field, I heard that the hammer purchased at the end of the Edo period still existed in the Yokosuka Shipyard, which is now a U.S. military base, so I visited the shipyard in November 1996 along with some other people. I was surprised at the size of the hammer when we were shown around. The hammer was a five-meter high semicircular iron arch, which was placed in a weighty manner. The manager of the plant said, "We have some work to do, so we will operate it now.
 

 驚く私たちの目の前に、すぐに真っ赤に焼かれた三〇〇キロの鋼材 が天井のクレーンで運ばれ、アーチの中央のハンマーの真下に据えら れると、ハンマーがスチームの力によりハンドル一本でスッと上がり、 自重三トンの凄い響きで打ち落とされる。
 何回か繰り返されるとたち まち成型され、キノコのような形になった。あれは何ですか、と聞く と秘密ですが、と耳元で「空母インディペンデンスのボイラーに故障 が生じて、ボルトの注文が入ったので、打っている」と教えてくれた。
 なんと、幕末130年前に買い入れた機械で、最新鋭の航空母艦の 部品を作っている!上野介が日本の近代化に役立つことを確信して建 設を推進した施設の中で、その当時の道具が現在も実際に役立ってい るのだ。私は胸が熱くなってきた。

In front of our surprised eyes, 300 kilograms of red-hot steel was immediately carried by an overhead crane and placed right under the hammer in the center of the arch. Then, the hammer was raised by the power of steam with a single stroke of the handle, and struck down with the awesome sound of its own weight of three tons.

After several repetitions, it was immediately formed into a mushroom-like shape. When I asked him what it was, he told me in my ear, "It's a secret, but the boiler on the aircraft carrier Independence had a malfunction and we received an order for bolts, so we're hitting it."

To my surprise, he was making parts for a state-of-the-art aircraft carrier with a machine Japan had purchased 130 years ago, at the end of the Edo period! Tools from that time are still in use today in the facility that Kozukenosuke Oguri promoted the construction of, confident that it would be useful for the modernization of Japan. My heart became fraught with emotion.

 
   ▲スチームハンマー(3トン)
マザーマシンと呼ばれ、あらゆる機具の母機として活躍した。

Steam hammer (3 tons)
Called the mother machine, it served as the mother machine for all kinds of equipment. 

 ところが、「この道具ですぐ船が造れたわけではありません」と、工場長はいう。 私の不審を察してさらに説明する。「当時は、ドライバーも、ボルト 一本も日本製がなかったから、まずこのハンマーで機械を作って工具 や部品を生み出し、それから造船に入っていった。このハンマーがそういったものを作る大元の機械だから、いちばん原点にあ るこのハンマーを、現場ではマザーマシン、と呼んでいます」

 マザーマシン……ごつい現場に似合わないなんともやさしい言葉を 聞くものだと、印象深かった。かつて作家司馬遼太郎は「横須賀は日本近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(『三浦半島記』)と書いたが、このハンマーがその 象徴とすれば、横須賀市そのものが日本のマザーマシンだった、といえよ う。ハンマーを支えるアーチの基部の、1865(慶応元年)オラン ダ・ロッテルダムで製作、という文字も誇らしげに見えた。

 さらに 工場長は、新しい施設ができたから、このハンマーを動かすのもこれ で終りでしょう、といくぶん寂しそうに語る。
「その新しいハンマーはさぞ大きいのでしょうね」
「ええ、50トンです」
という答えに、私は仰天した。

そしてこっちのこのハンマーは
スクラップになるのか、と心配 したら、その後横須賀市で引き取って、ドックの海向かいの公園にヴェルニー記念館を設立し、近代化の遺産として展示することになった。

 もう動かないのは残念だが、やむを得ないことか。あの時が稼働する最後の姿となったから、いい時現場を見せていただいた と思っている。

Then, the factory manager said, "People at the time were not able to build a ship immediately with this machine." Sensing my suspicion, he explained further. "At that time, there were no screwdrivers or even bolts made in Japan, so they used this hammer to make machines to produce tools and parts, and then they started shipbuilding. Since this hammer was the main machine used to make such things, we call this hammer, which is the most original one, the mother machine."

Mother Machine ... I was deeply impressed to hear such a gentle word that does not fit the harsh site. The writer Ryotaro Shiba once wrote, "Yokosuka is the source of all modern engineering in Japan" (Miura Peninsular Chronicles), and if this hammer is a symbol of modern engineering in Japan, then Yokosuka City itself can be said to have been Japan's mother machine. The words "Made in Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1865" on the base of the arch supporting the hammer also looked proud.  

The factory manager also said , somewhat sadly, that this would be the last of the hammering since a new facility had been built. I asked him ,"The new hammer must be very big "and he said "Yes 50 tons ""Fifty tons?"I replied in amazement.

I was worried that the old hammer would be scrapped,but later found out that Yokosuka City would receive and place it in the Verney Commemorative Museum, which they would build in a park across the water from the dock,so display it as a legacy of modernization.

It was a pity that it would not be used any more, but I guess it was unavoidable. That was the last timeit was in operation, so I was thankuful that Iwas able to see it.


 
  強弱をつけて打てる
     ハンマー

 このあと、基地を出るとヴェルニー公園での「ヴェルニー・小栗祭」式典に参列し、その後近くのホテルでレセプションが行われた。

 レセプション会場の一隅にいる年配の紳士たちが、私を招くので行ってみると「あのハンマーを見てきたそうですね」という。あの現場で働いていた技師たちのOBだという。もう情報が伝わっている。

 「あのハンマーを操作した一番の人は彼ですよ」と老紳士を指さす。
 「どう操作したのですか」
 「彼は打つ台の上に懐中時計を置いて、ハンマーを落とし、時計の上ギリギリで止めたんだ。そして時計の紐を引っ張って出そうとしたら押さえられていて動かない。ハンマーを上げてみたら、時計はガラス面も時計も少しも傷ついていなかった」

 なんとそういう神業のような微妙な強弱のコントロールを付けて打つこともできるハンマーだったのだ。しかし誰でもできることではない。

 言われた紳士は「俺はそんなことはしない」と言わず、ただニコニコと笑っていた。
 実に印象的な驚きの場面だった。


(上毛新聞「オピニオン21」2000年5月15日掲載・のち加筆)
 
Hammer with Different Power Strength
After this, we left the base and attended the "Verney Oguri Festival" ceremony at Verney Park, followed by a reception at a nearby hotel.

A group of older gentlemen in a corner of the reception hall invited me to join them and,when I went over to them,one of them said, "I hear you've seen that hammer." He said he was an alumnus of the engineers who worked at the site.Word has already gotten out that I saw the hammer.

"He's theone who operated that hammer the most,"he said,pointing to an old gentleman.

   "How did he operate it?
  "He put his pocket watch on the hitting table, dropped the hammer, and stopped it just above the watch. Then he tried to pull the strap of the watch to get it out, but it was held and wouldn't move. When he lifted the hammer, he found that the clock had not been damaged in the slightest, neither the glass surface nor the watch.It was a hammer that could be struk with such subtl control of strength and weakness that it was almost divin.However ,this is noto something thaat anyone can do. 

The gentleman who was told was just smiling and  did not say, "I didn't do that." It was a very impressive and surprising scene.

(Published in Opinion 21, Jomo Shimbun, May 15, 2000, with later additions)
機械遺産に認定
2013平成25年8月日本機械学会から〈3トン及び0.5トン共に)機械遺産第58号に認定されました。
Recognized as a Machinery Heritage Site

In August 2013, the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) recognized the 3 ton and 0.5 ton steam hammers as Machine Heritage No. 58.  
3トンと0.5トン 2基のスチームハンマー Two steam hammers of 3 tons and 0.5 tons
 慶応元年(1865)に横須賀製鉄所の建設が始まると基本中の基本的な機械としてオランダ製のスチームハンマー6基が据えられ、日本の産業革命を支えました。現在はこのうち3トンと0.5トン、計2基のハンマーがJR横須賀駅前のヴェルニー記念館に展示されいます。   
 
 ヴェルニー記念館▲・JR横須賀駅そばのヴェルニー公園西端・入館無料
建物はフランス・ブルターニュ地方の農家を模したデザイン
When the construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks began in 1865, six Dutch-made steam hammers were installed as basic machines to support Japan's industrial revolution. Currently, two of these hammers, one of 3 tons and the other of 0.5 tons, are on display at the Verney Commemorative Museum in front of JR Yokosuka Station.       




Verney Commemorative Museum
Location: West end of Verney Park near JR Yokosuka Station
Admission: Free
The building was designed to resemble a farmhouse in Brittany, France.
3トンハンマー
1865年オランダ・ロッテルダム製
ヴェルニー記念館はこのハンマーを据えるために作られた。


▲上部  ▼下部
Three-ton hammer
Made in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 1865
The Verny Commemorative Museum was built to house this hammer.


















▲Top of the machine
▼Bottom of the machine



This hammer was also powered by the steam engine and the use of the steam engine was fundamental to the Industrial Revolution
 ▲このハンマーも蒸気機関が原動力蒸気機関の使用が産業革命の基本 
 
関連ページ

ヴェルニー記念館(リンク)…横須賀市人文博物館のページです。
ヴェルニー記念館(リンク)…HP「技術のわくわく探検記」。画像が豊富で解説も本格的です
日本機械学会(リンク)…スチームハンマーを機械遺産に認定

横須賀明細一覧図を読む…図から読み取れる産業革命の地横須賀
横須賀製鉄所の借款説
横須賀造船所のレンガ
「土蔵つき売家」の横須賀造船所

富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の妹:ここも蒸気機関を原動力としていた

森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・
Related pages

Verny Commemorative Museum (link)… Website of Yokosuka City Museum for the Humanities
Verny Commemorative Museum (link) … Website of "Gijutsuno Wakuwaku Tankenki
" (Exciting Expedition Record of Technology), which has a lot of images and authentic explanations.
Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (link) … They recognized the steam hammer as a Machinery Heritage.

Reading the "Detailed Drwing of Yokosuka" Read from the drawing that Yokosuka was the place of the Industrial Revolution in Japan.
The theory that the Yokosuka ironworks were built with borrowed money
The bricks of Yokosuka Shipyard
Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"

Tomioka Silk Mill is a "sister" of Yokosuka Shipyard:The mill was was also powered by steam engines.

Advocacy of forest protection and cultivation: Shipbuilding requires a lot of wood...