小栗上野介随想(HP東善寺)  ●●  ほんとうの「幕末明治日本の産業革命の地」横須賀造船所 Essays for Kozukenosuke Oguri (Tozenji Temple)● Yokosuka Shipyard, the real "site of the industrial revolution of late Edo and Meiji Japan"


日本産業革命の地
横須賀
The Place where Japan's Industrial Revolution started

YOKOSUKA
将来を見据えて建設した横須賀造船所
「土蔵付き売家」または
「土蔵付売り据え」

Yokosuka Shipyard Built with the Future in Mind 

"House for sale with a storehouse"
横須賀造船所は
「蒸気機関を原動力とした日本最初の総合工場」
だった

 The Yokosuka Shipyard was
"Japan's first integrated factory"
powered by steam engines.  
 
 従来、日本の工業の原動力は人力・牛馬・水車までだった。横須賀製鉄所ははじめから蒸気機関を原動力としていたから「蒸気機関を原動力とする日本最初の総合工場」といえる。まさに日本の産業革命の地である。司馬遼太郎が「日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(「三浦半島記」)と書いたのは、このことを指す。
 Traditionally, the driving force of Japanese industry has been human power, oxen, horses, and water wheels. The Yokosuka Ironworks was the first integrated factory in Japan powered by steam engines from the beginning. It is truly the site of Japan's industrial revolution. This is what Ryotaro Shiba meant when he wrote that it was "the source of all modern engineering in Japan." (Miura Peninsula Chronicles).

 

 横須賀造船所建設で現場を指揮した栗本鋤雲(じょうん)は、「小栗は、これができあがれば土蔵付き売家の栄誉が残せる、と笑った」と書いている。(『匏庵遺稿ー横須賀造船所経営の事ー』)
 
また、明治になって旧幕臣島田三郎は幕末を回顧し「小栗上野介はこれが出来上がればいずれ土蔵付売り据えの栄誉が残せる。後は野となれ山となれと言って退散するのはよろしくない、と語った」と述べている。 (『同方会報告』1号) 

 Joun Kurimoto, who supervised the construction of the Yokosuka Shipyard, wrote, "Oguri laughed, saying, 'If this is finished, the honor of a house for sale with a storehouse can be left behind. ("Hoan’s Posthumous Essay - Management of Yokosuka Shipyard -")  

In the Meiji era (1868-1912), Saburo Shimada, a former vassal of the Tokugawa Shogunate, recalled the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and wrote, "Kozukenosuke Oguri said that, once this is completed, we can eventually leave the honor of selling a house with a storehouse behind. It's not a good idea to just leave the rest to fend for itself."
(Dohokai Report, No. 1)

 ▼一枚の写真が残っている。1860万延元年に遣米使節が、ワシントン海軍造船所を見学したときの記念写真だ。使節の小栗忠順も写っている。

▼There is a photo of the Washington Naval Shipyard taken by the Japanese Mission to the U.S. 1860. Tadamasa Oguri, one of the envoys, is in the photo. 

▲ワシントン海軍造船所見学 1860萬延元年4月5日
前列右から2番目が小栗忠順) 
  Visit to Washington Naval Shipyard, April 5, 1860
(Tadamasa Oguri is second from the right in the front row)

 この時案内されて造船所に入ると、そこは造船だけの施設ではなかった。
 建ち並ぶ工場では、蒸気機関の仕掛けで鉄の部品を造り、船の機関、大砲・小銃の部品を造り、それらを結びつけるネジも造る。砲弾、弾丸が次々に造られてゆく。生活用具の鍋、釜、ナイフ、スプーン、フォークからドアノブまで造っていた。次の工場では木材で船の船体が作られている。その向こうで船も組み立てられていた。ここは総合工場だったのだ。
 「日本人は熱心に見学している」と書いたニューヨークタイムズは続けて「とくに小栗は近い将来日本にこういう施設をぜひ造りたい、と熱心に語った」と報じている。

ワシントン海軍造船所見学の写真の意味

・アメリカで痛感したのは「もうレースは始まっていた」ということ。
・その国際レースの名は「近代化」という種目。
・「近代化レース」の特徴は…一斉スタートでなく、仕度の出来た国は走り出していい種目だった。アメリカは背中も見えないほど先を走っていた。

・日本はスタートできない…まだ走る仕度ができていないので、スタートラインにつくこともできないと、痛感したのが遣米使節小栗忠順の旅だった。何から手を付けたらスタートできるのだろうか…。

・ワシントン海軍造船所は総合工場…蒸気機関を原動力として何でも作り、船も造る総合工場が造船所だった。日本も造船所を造れば近代化レースのスタートラインに立てるのではないか、と確信したのが小栗上野介

・但し、どこに造るか、経費はどれくらいかかるか、どこの国の技術援助を受けるか、何年かかるか…課題はいっぱいあったが、「とにかく造船所を造れば近代化レースに参加できる」と考え始めた顔が、上の写真。
  *「見学記念写真」程度の説明で済ませている歴史書に、くれぐれもごまかされないでください。


 帰国後、上野介は対外問題と国内の攘夷(じょうい)討幕問題に追われ、目まぐるしい活動を要求される。財政もひっぱくしている中で勘定奉行に就任すると、懸案の造船所建設を提案する。
 当然、反対論が起きる。時期尚早だ、不要不急だ、金がない、金があるなら陸軍を強化しろ、といったものだった。勝海舟も「日本で軍艦を造るなど数年でできる。でも艦隊を動かす人材育成に五百年かかる。そっちを先にするほうが大事」と反対した。

 上野介が造りたかったのは船だけ造る造船所ではない。アメリカで見た重工業の総合工場である。ここから日本の近代化が進んでゆくという確信をもって、金は何とかするから、と幕閣を説得する。フランス人技師と共に江戸湾を見まわって、絶好の場所を見つけた。横須賀である。帰国五年後の1865(慶応元)年11月、着工にこぎつけた。

 造船所は、はじめ横須賀製鉄所という名で始まった。これは現在の製鉄所の意味ではない「あらゆる鉄製品を製する所」である。明治4年に「横須賀造船所」と名称が変わり、「製鉄所」は現在の「鉄鉱石から鉄を取り出す所」となった。要注意の歴史用語である。

 遣米使節一行はアメリカで、街のあちこちに使われなくなった鉄製品が放り出されているのを見て「この国は鉄があふれている!」と驚いた。当時、江戸では火事が消えると、焼け跡を掘り返して釘を拾い、叩き直してまた使っていたくらい鉄が貴重だった。    
*下仁田町中小坂の鉄山採掘は横須賀製鉄所の関連で行なわれた。

 When the envoys were guided into the shipyard premises, they found that it was not just a shipbuilding facility. In the factories that lined in the premises, iron parts were made by steam engine mechanisms, ship engines, cannon and rifle parts were made, and screws were made for the machines. Artillery shells and bullets were being made one after another. Pots, pans, knives, spoons, forks, and even doorknobs were being made. In the next factory, the hulls of ships were being made from wood. Beyond that, ships were being assembled. This was an integrated factory. The New York Times went on to say, "The Japanese were eager to see it," and "Oguri was particularly enthusiastic, saying that he would love to build such a facility in Japan in the near future."

The Meaning of the Photo of the Washington Naval Shipyard Tour

* They realized in the United States that the race had already started.
* The name of the international race was "Modernization."
* The feature of the "Modernization Race" was that it was not a simultaneous start, but the countries that were ready were allowed to start running. America was running so far ahead that they couldn't even see their backs.

* Japan can't start...it can't even get to the starting line because it's not ready to run yet. This was something that Tadamasa Oguri, one of the Japanese envoys to the United States, felt keenly during the trip. What should we do to get started?

* The Washington Naval Shipyard was a general factory... A shipyard was a general factory that used steam engines as a driving force to build anything and everything, including ships. Oguri was convinced that, if Japan could build a shipyard, it would be able to start the race for modernization.

* There were many problems to be solved, such as where to build, how much it would cost, which country would provide technical assistance, how many years it would take, etc. However, the photo above shows his face when he started thinking, "Anyway, if we build a shipyard, we can participate in the race for modernization.   

* You may see the same photo in some history books, but please don't be fooled by the books that only describe it as a photo of "commemorative photo of the visit" explanation.

After returning to Japan, Oguri had to work at a dizzying pace to deal with both foreign and domestic issues related to the problem of forces advocating the expulsion of the foreigners and the overthrow of the shogunate. When he was appointed to the post of accountant while finances were stretched, he proposed the construction of a shipyard.

Naturally, he is met with opposition. They argued that it was premature and unnecessary, that there was no money, and that if there was money, the army should be strengthened. Kaishu Katsu also said, "We can build a warship in Japan in a few years. But it will take 500 years to train people to run a fleet. It is more important to do that first.

What Oguri wanted to build was not a shipyard that only built ships. He wanted to build not only a shipyard to build ships, but also a comprehensive factory for heavy industry, which he had seen in the United States. Convinced that Japan's modernization would progress from here, he persuaded the Shogunate that he would take care of the money. He and a French engineer looked around Edo Bay and found the perfect place. It was Yokosuka. Five years after his return to Japan, in November 1865, he was able to start construction.

The shipyard began with the name, "Yokosuka Ironworks."
However, the word of "ironwoks" did not mean the word currently used, but meant only "a place where all kinds of iron products are made." In 1871, the name was changed to Yokosuka Shipyard and, in general, the word of "ironworks" became what it is today: a place that extracts iron from iron ore. This is a historical term that requires attention.

In the United States, the delegation was amazed to see disused iron products strewn all over the city. "This country is full of iron! " In those days in Japan, iron was so valuable that when a fire broke out in Edo, people would dig up the remains of the fire, pick up nails, hammer them back together, and use them again. The mining of iron at Nakaosaka mine of Shimonita Town in Gunma Prefacture was done in connection with the Yokosuka Ironworks.
 
▲波止場に据えられたクレーン▼  A crane set up on the wharf
 
    ▲横須賀製鉄所のクレーン 
 
 
ハンドル二つ、一つは荷の昇降、一つは左右への転回を操作した手動式と思われる。オランダまたはフランス製であろう。
 

 
昭和30年代に大蔵省から横須賀市にこのクレーンを払い下げの話があったが、市は断ったという。残っていれば、スチームハンマーと共に日本の大事な産業遺産になっていたろうに…実に惜しい!!
  
  
写真:明治初期の駐日イタリア公使バルボラーニ秘蔵の『大日本全国名所一覧』(安池尋幸氏寄贈)より
 Crane at Yokosuka Steel Works

Two handles, one for lifting and lowering the load, and one for turning to the left and right, seem to be of the manual type. It was probably made in Holland or France.

In the 1950s, the Ministry of Finance offered to
dispose this crane to Yokosuka City, but the city turned it down. If it had remained, it would have become an important industrial heritage of Japan along with the steam hammer... what a shame!

Photo: From "List of Famous Places in Japan," which was treasured by Mr. Barborani, the Italian Minister to Japan in the early Meiji period (donated by Mr. Hiroyuki Yasuike).

 
 さて大勢のフランス人技師が指図しても、日本人の大工、石工、鍛冶屋はフランス語がわからない。しかし、その後、横浜に設けた日本最初の仏語伝習所で学んだ若者が現地で仏人技師の言葉を伝え、鱟舎で学んだ職工がゆくゆくは出来上がった造船所の幹部に育ってゆくシステムも作った。養子小栗又一もここで学んだ。明治維新後、工事は明治政府に引き継がれ、明治二年ごろから本格稼働、同四年から本格的な造船を開始して、海運国日本の原動力となった。


 
こうした彼の業績を、のちの歴史家は「徳川幕府強化のために横須賀造船所を造った」と逆賊視する根拠としてきた。しかし、フランス語が出来ることから日本側責任者となって、現地を指揮した栗本鋤雲(じょうん)は明治中ごろに当時を思い出し「小栗は、これが出来上がれば、土蔵付き売家の栄誉が残せる、と笑った」と『匏庵遺稿ー横須賀造船所経営の事ー』に書いている。

 母屋(政権)が売りに出てもこの土蔵(造船所)が新しい家主の役に立つ、ということで、明治維新の三年前、すでに幕府政治の行き詰まりを見通し、のちの時代のために造っていたことがわかる。栗本は「その場の冗談と思ったが、今彼のいったとおりになっている。あの時の彼の心中を思うと、胸が痛む」と書いている。私たちも胸が痛む。

(2000・平成12年3月11日・上毛新聞オピニオンに加筆)

 
Although many French engineers gave instructions, Japanese carpenters, masons, and blacksmiths did not understand French. Later, though, young people who had studied at Japan's first French language school in Yokohama could pass on the language of French engineers to the workers in the region, and workers who had studied at the school could eventually become executives of the completed shipyard. Kozukenosuke's adopted son, Mataichi Oguri, also studied here. After the Meiji Restoration, the Meiji government took over the construction of the shipyard, which started full-scale operation around the second year of the Meiji Era (1869) and full-scale shipbuilding in the fourth year of the Meiji Era (1869), becoming the driving force of Japan as a maritime nation.  

Later historians have used his achievements as a basis for accusing him of being a traitor, saying that he built the Yokosuka shipyard to strengthen the Tokugawa Shogunate. However, Joun Kurimoto, recalling those days in the middle of the Meiji period. wrote the following in "Hoan’s Posthumous Essay - Management of Yokosuka Shipyard." "Oguri laughed, saying that if this was completed, the honor of a house for sale with a storehouse could be left behind." Kurimoto was in charge of the construction representing the Japanese government because of his ability to speak French and commanded the work at the site.

It is clear that three years before the Meiji Restoration, Oguri had already foreseen the deadlock in the politics of the Tokugawa Shogunate and was building a shipyard for the future. Kurimoto said, "I thought it was a joke on the spot, but now it's just as he said. It breaks my heart to think about what he was going through at that time. It hurts us too.
(Added to an opinion piece in the Jomo Shimbun, March 11, 2000)
 ○小栗上野介の名言「土蔵付き売家」を栗本鋤雲の創作とする説  
 小栗上野介が「土蔵付き売家の栄誉」と語ったと書いた栗本鋤雲の文章は疑わしい、小栗の死を悼んだ栗本鋤雲の創作だろうという説が発表されました。その説によると、
          

 「小栗上野介が3年半後の幕府瓦解を予見する「土蔵付き売家」というセリフを口にするのは疑わしい」

として

 「栗本鋤雲は、非業の死を遂げた小栗上野介をいたんで花を持たせるべく事実を並べ替え、創作を挟んだに違いない」(安達裕之「横須賀造船所と小栗忠順」『小栗忠順のすべて』P122・新人物往来社・2008平成20年刊)
【この書は「村上泰賢編」となっているが結果は名ばかりで、実際は新人物往来社が原稿を集め、刊行されるまで村上泰賢はほかの執筆者の原稿を見ていなかったため、このような原稿が掲載されてしまった】

というもので、小栗上野介のそのような先見性は考えられない、という先入観を前提とするもの。根拠を示さないこの説がそのまま受け入れられれば、それを前提として安達氏が次のように言うのも受け入れることになる。

 「(小栗上野介は1864元治元年)八月十三日の勘定奉行就任後、初めて製鉄所の設立計画が進行中であることを知ったはずである」(『同 書』P136)  

 
はたして小栗上野介にそのような先見性はない、だから横須賀製鉄所の建設を提案したのは小栗上野介以外の人物である、といえるのだろうか。
 もう少し詳しく検討したい方は次のページを参照してください。

  →→小栗上野介の言葉「幕府の運命、日本の運命・土蔵付売り据え」 
【このページでは島田三郎が明治28年の講演で、小栗上野介の言葉を思い出して紹介しています。小栗上野介はその時「土蔵付売り据え」という言葉で横須賀造船所の建設を主張しています
(『同方会報告』1号)。「栗本鋤雲の創作」説をとる人は、この島田三郎の証言も創作だ、と立証する責任があります。
 

 The theory that Joun Kurimoto made up the famous words of Kozukenosuke Oguri, "A house for sale with a storehouse."

There is a theory that Joun Kurimoto, who mourned Oguri's death, created the text in which he wrote that Kozukenosuke Oguri spoke of "the honor of selling a house with a storehouse". According to this theory:

"It is doubtful that Kozukenosuke Oguri would utter the line "a house for sale with a storehouse" foreseeing the collapse of the Shogunate three and a half years later. As "Joun Kurimoto must have rearranged the facts and interjected his own creations in order to make the story more florid in memory of Kozukenosuke Oguri, who died an untimely death."
(Hiroyuki Adachi, "Yokosuka Shipyard and Tadamasa Oguri: Everything about Tadamasa Oguri*" p. 122, Shin Jinbutsu OhraiSha, 2008).

Note*: This book is "edited by Taiken Murakami." However, the fact is that Shin Jinbutsu OhraiSha collected manuscripts from other authers, and until the book was published, they did not show the manuscripts to Murakami.

This theory is based on the preconceived notion that such foresight of Kozukenosuke Oguri is unthinkable. If this theory, without any evidence, is accepted as it is, then it is also accepted that Mr. Adachi says the following:

"Kozukenosuke Oguri must have first learned that the plan to construct an ironworks was underway after he assumed the post of accountant on August 13, 1864, the first year of Genji."
(ibid., p. 136).

Can we say that Kozukenosuke Oguri did not have such foresight, and therefore it was someone other than Oguri who proposed the construction of the Yokosuka ironworks? For a more detailed discussion, please refer to the next page:

→ → "The fate of the Shogunate, the fate of Japan, a house fo sale with a storehouse" in the words of Kozukenosuke Oguri"
(In this page, the words of Saburo Shimada who recalled the words of Oguri Kozukenosuke in his lecture in 1895 are refered to ("Report of the Dohokai," No. 1). Those who adopt the theory of "Joun Kurimoto's creation" have the burden of proving that Saburo Shimada's testimony is also a creation.)
   
 

 


関連ページ

「土蔵付売り据え」横須賀造船所は売家につける土蔵…小栗上野介の言葉
横須賀製鉄所 三つの特徴…この特徴から日本産業革命の地であることがわかる
レンガのページ:やっと入手できた、横須賀で作られたレンガ
森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・
技師長フランソワ・レオンス・ヴェルニー:横須賀市のページ(リンク)

横須賀明細一覧図を読む:近代工業の先端設備をそろえ、多くの見物客でにぎわった
いまの横須賀造船所「日米親善ベース歴史ツアー」(リンク)
勝海舟の「海軍500年説」は:「海舟日記」の信憑性ゆらぐ
東郷元帥の謝辞:日本海海戦の勝利は小栗さんのおかげ・・・
幕末の構造改革:ネジをお土産にした小栗上野介

横須賀造船所の借款説:約定書の読み違いで濡れ衣
小栗の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした:幕末世情混乱の中の根無し草
「横須賀製鉄所物語」(リンク)
オランダ製スチームハンマー(リンク)
横須賀製鉄所なくして日本の近代化はなかった(リンク)

最新空母と幕末のドック:旧横須賀造船所見学ツアー
富岡製糸工場:技術のわくわく探検記(リンク)
小栗上野介の言葉「幕府の運命、日本の運命」


Related pages


"Property to be sold with a storehouse attched" The Yokosuka Shipyard is a storehouse attached to a house for sale.... The words of Kozukenosuke Oguri
Yokosuka Ironworks: Three Features… These features show that Yokosuka is the site of Japan's industrial revolution.
The bricks made in Yokosuka, which we could finally get.
Advocacy of forest protection and cultivation: Shipbuilding requires a lot of wood...
Chief Engineer Francois-Leonce Verney: Yokosuka City page (link)

Reading the "Detailed Drwing of Yokosuka": Yokosuka with advanced facilities of modern industry was crowded with visitors.
Yokosuka Shipyard "Japan-U.S. Friendship Base History Tour" (link)
Kaishu Katsu's "500 Year Navy Theory": The authenticity of "Kaishu's Diary" wavers.
General Togo's Acknowledgement: Victory in the Battle of the Sea of Japan was thanks to Mr. Oguri...
Structural reforms at the end of the Edo period:Kozukenosuke Oguri brought a screw as a souvenir.

The theory that the Yokosuka ironworks were built with borrowed money : It was wrongly alleged by a writer who misread the historical materials.
Falsely accued Oguri - he used Shikoku and Ezo as collateral:A baseless theory in the turmoil of the late Edo period
The Story of Yokosuka Ironworks (link)
The Story of Yokosuka Ironworks (link)
Japan's modernization would not have been possible without the Yokosuka Ironworks (link)

Latest Aircraft Carriers and Docks at the End of Edo Period: Yokosuka Shipyard Tour
Tomioka Silk Mill:Exciting Exploration of Technology (link)
"The fate of the Shogunate, the fate of Japan" by Kozukenosuke Oguri