横須賀造船所   ● ほんとうの「幕末明治日本の産業革命」の地・横須賀造船所 建設

ほんとうの「幕末明治日本の産業革命の地」
横須賀造船所建設
Construction of Yokosuka Shipyard
The true site of the Industrial Revolution of Japan at the end of the Edo Period




  現在の横須賀造船所
(造船はしていない。すべて米軍横須賀基地として、米軍と海上自衛隊艦船の修理部門が機能している。)
 Current Yokosuka Shipyard
(No shipbuilding. It functions entirely as a U.S. Yokosuka base for the repair of U.S. military and Maritime Self-Defense Force ships)


日本語 English


 
従来、日本の工業の原動力は人力・牛馬・水車までだった。横須賀製鉄所ははじめから蒸気機関を原動力としていたから「蒸気機関を原動力とする日本最初の総合工場」といえる。まさに日本の産業革命の地である。司馬遼太郎が「日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉」(「三浦半島記」)と書いたのは、このことを指す。 In the past, the driving force of Japanese industry was human power, cattle and horses, and even water wheels. Since the Yokosuka Ironworks was powered by steam engines from the beginning, it can be called "Japan's first integrated plant powered by steam engines." It is truly the site of Japan's industrial revolution. This is what Ryotaro Shiba meant when he wrote in his work of "Miura Hanto Ki" (Miura Peninsula Chronicles) that it was "the source of all modern engineering in Japan." 
   
横須賀に決定  勘定奉行となった上野介は栗本鋤雲(じょうん)に相談し、フランスの技術援助を得て日本に近代的な造船所を建設することを幕府に提案。賛否両論、非難の声を押しきって諒解を取りつけ調査測量の結果、湾の形態・深さがフランスのツーロンによく似ている、その三分の二の規模のものが出来るということで横須賀に決まった。
 
造船所から日本の近代化  小栗上野介が作りたかったのは、船だけ造る造船所ではない。ワシントンで見た海軍造船所で、そこでは造船のほかに大砲、ライフル、砲弾、弾丸が次々に作られていた。すべて蒸気機関の力でやすやすと操作される過程を見て、日本の近代化はここから始まるという確信を持って進めた。


Yokosuka was chosen for the new shipyard: Kozukenosuke Oguri, who had become the Kanjo Bugyo (Magistrate in charge of accountanting), consulted with Joun Kurimoto and proposed to the shogunate to build a modern shipyard in Japan with technical assistance from France. The two sides of the controversy, and the accusations, were overwhelmed and an agreement was reached to build it. As a result of survey, Yokosuka was chosen as the site because the shape and depth of the bay was similar to that of Toulon in France, and it could be built on a scale two-thirds that of Toulon's shipyard.

Japan's Modernization from the Shipyard: What Kozukenosuke Oguri wanted to build was not only a shipyard to build ships. He saw a naval shipyard in Washington, D.C., where, in addition to shipbuilding, cannons, rifles, shells, and bullets were being made one after another. Seeing how easily everything was operated with the power of steam engines, he was convinced that Japan's modernization would begin in that way.
第1号ドック(東善寺・小栗上野介)
慶応三年に着工したドック
 (右から1号・3号・2号ドックの順) 幕末に掘りはじめ、明治に完成したドックは現在も米軍基地の中で使われている。国産のセメントはなかったから床も壁も石積みで、石は真鶴から運ばれた小松石。
  「横須賀明細一覧図」明治16年版より
Dock construction started in 1867 or Keio 3

(From right to left: No. 1, No. 3, and No. 2 docks) Dredging began at the end of the Edo period (1603-1868) and was completed in the Meiji period (1868-1912), and the docks are still in use at the U.S. military base. Since there was no domestic cement, the floors and walls were masonry, and the stone was komatsu stone brought from Manazuru.   
The drawing from "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka", 1883 edition
フランス人技師長ヴェルニー(東善寺・小栗上野介)  
技師長 ヴェルニー Fransois Leons Verny
 日本に来たときは29歳。あまりにも若いので「小栗殿はフランス公使ロッシュにだまされたのでは」とささやかれた。
 卓越した技術と的確な指揮、誠実な運営で造船所建設の大事業を完成させていった。
Chief Engineer Francois Leons Verny

He was 29 years old when he came to Japan. He was so young that it was whispered that "Oguri may have been deceived by the French Minister Roche."

With his outstanding technology, precise direction and sincere management, Verny completed the great project of building the shipyard.


3トンハンマー(東善寺・小栗上野介)  
3トンスチームハンマー
「1865年オランダ・ロッテルダム製」と刻印がある。
*このハンマーは、いまJR横須賀駅前の「ヴェルニー館」に展示しています。
Three-ton steam hammer

Marked "Made in Rotterdam, Holland, 1865"

This hammer is now on display at the "Verney Museum" in front of JR Yokosuka Station.


マザーマシン(東善寺・小栗上野介) 
マザーマシン

まずこのハンマーで、「工具や部品を造るための機械を造った。船はその機械で造った工具や部品で造る」から、大もとになる造船所最大の3トンハンマーは「マザーマシン」と呼ばれた。

「横須賀はかつて日本近代工学のいっさいの源泉だった」(司馬遼太郎)・・・ということは、
言い換えれば
「横須賀はかつては日本のマザーマシンだった」

ということ。司馬遼太郎氏がこのマザーマシンを見ていればそう言ったに違いない。

「19世紀のオランダは海外に数多くの機械を輸出したが、今世界に残っているのはこの2台のハンマー(3トンと0.5トン)及びインドの潜水器具だけだという。」(「JFA」日本鍛造協会/2002.Nov.bQ号)
Mother Machine

First, with this hammer, they "built machines to make tools and parts. Ships were built with tools and parts made with these machines." Therefore, the largest hammer in the shipyard, a three-ton hammer, was called the "mother machine."

Yokosuka was once the source of all modern Japanese engineering. In other words, Yokosuka used to be the mother machine of Japan. If Ryotaro Shiba had seen this mother machine, he would have said so.

"In the 19th century, the Netherlands exported many machines abroad, but the only ones left in the world today are these two hammers (3 tons and 0.5 tons) and a diving apparatus from India."
("JFA" Japan Forging Association / Nov. 2002, No.2)
・横須賀造船所建設は、遣米使節小栗上野介のワシントン海軍造船所見学から発想された。
・横須賀造船所は日本を木の国から鉄の国にするための礎となる総合工場。船だけ造るところではない、「船も」造るところ。
・のちの政治が「軍港」にしただけで、初めは
日本の構造改革を進めるための基礎工場だった。
・だから「製鉄所」→「造船所」→「海軍工廠」と名称が変わっている。

Kozukenosuke Oguri inspired the construction of the Yokosuka Shipyard by his visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard, as one of the Japanese envoys to the U.S.A.

The Yokosuka Shipyard is a comprehensive factory that will be the foundation for transforming Japan from a country of wood to a country of steel. It is not a place to build ships only, but rather a place to build many things including ships.

Later governments turned it into a "military port," but in the beginning, it was a basic factory to promote Japan's structural reform.

So the name was changed from "ironworks" to "shipyard" and then to "naval arsenal."

  フランスに技術指導を依頼

 
初めは遣米使節の旅で実地に見学してきたアメリカに依頼したかった。しかし南北戦争に入っていて日本を支援するゆとりはなかった。
 日本との古い歴史のあるオランダは国力が落ちて、乗り気でなかった。
 イギリスはインドや中国で手を汚して日本に接近してきている。遣米使節の帰途にアフリカや香港で見た原住民をいきなり棍棒でぶちのめすような植民地支配の実態では、とても危なくて話を進められない。
 ロシアも早くから日本に接近してきていたが、対馬事件に見るように欲しいものにいきなり爪を出すような乱暴なところがある、と敬遠された。
 たまたま横浜で蒸気船翔鶴丸の修理をフランス軍艦に依頼したところ、きれいに直してくれて高いことを言わない。人柄もイギリスよりもいくらかマシだ…という消去法でフランスが残った形で、製鉄所建設指導を頼むことになった。

 小栗上野介はフランス派だから、という話ではない。
Asking France for Technical Guidance

Initially, Oguri wanted to ask the United States, which he had observed firsthand during the Japanese mission to the United States. However, the U.S. was in the midst of the Civil War and had no time to support Japan.  

The Netherlands, which had a long history with Japan, had lost its national power and was not willing to help. The British had gotten their hands dirty in India and China and were approaching Japan. With the reality of colonial rule, such as the clubbing of indigenous people in Africa and Hong Kong, that Oguri saw on the way back from the mission to the United States, it was too dangerous to proceed.  

Russia also approached Japan from early on, but as the Tsushima Incident shows, it was shunned because of its violent tendency to suddenly put its claws into anything it wanted.  

The shogunate happened to ask a French warship to repair the steamship Shokaku Maru in Yokohama, and they fixed it up nicely and did not ask for a high price. By a process of elimination, France was left with the idea that its character was somewhat better than the British, and it was asked to provide guidance on the construction of a steel mill.  

It is clear here that the reason why France was chosen was not because Kozukenosuke Oguri liked France or whatsoever.


 
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国定教科書が作った咸臨丸神話

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The Myth of the Kanrin Maru Created by National Textbooks

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      関連ページ
横須賀造船所の借款説:約定書の読み違いで濡れ衣
小栗の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした:幕末世情混乱の中の根無し草
「土蔵つき売家」の横須賀造船所のページ
レンガのページ:やっと入手できた、横須賀で作られたレンガ
森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・
技師長フランソワ・レオンス・ヴェルニー:横須賀市のページ(リンク)
横須賀明細一覧図を読む:近代工業の先端設備をそろえ、多くの見物客でにぎわった
勝海舟の「海軍500年説」は:「海舟日記」の信憑性ゆらぐ
東郷元帥の謝辞:日本海海戦の勝利は小栗さんのおかげ・・・
幕末の構造改革:ネジをお土産にした小栗上野介
小栗上野介胸像物語…倉渕町に朝倉文夫作品が二つ

富岡製糸場は横須賀造船所の「妹」

「横須賀製鉄所物語」(リンク)
◇ オランダ製スチームハンマー(リンク)
最新空母と幕末のドック:旧横須賀造船所見学ツアー
いまの横須賀造船所「日米親善ベース歴史ツアー」(リンク)
富岡製糸場:技術のわくわく探検記(リンク)
富岡製糸を世界遺産へ:世界遺産暫定リストに登録され、あと一歩。(リンク)

国定教科書が作った咸臨丸神話

小栗上野介の言葉「幕府の運命、日本の運命」
   Related pages
The theory that the Yokosuka ironworks were built with borrowed money : It was wrongly alleged by a writer who misread the historical materials.
Falsely accued Oguri - he used Shikoku and Ezo as collateral:A baseless theory in the turmoil of the late Edo period
Yokosuka shipyard, "House for sale with a storehouse"
The bricks made in Yokosuka, which we could finally get.
Advocacy of forest protection and cultivationShipbuilding requires a lot of wood...
Chief Engineer Francois-Leonce Verney Yokosuka City page (link)
Reading the "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka" ChartThe city of Yokosuka, with its advanced facilities for modern industry, was crowded with visitors.
Kaishu Katsu's "500 Year Navy Theory"The authenticity of "Kaishu's Diary" wavers
General Togo's Acknowledgement Victory in the Battle of the Sea of Japan was thanks to Mr. Oguri...
Structural reforms at the end of the Edo periodKozukenosuke Oguri brought a screw as a souvenir.
The story of the bust of Kozukenosuke Ogur…Two works by Fumio Asakura in Kurabuchi Town

Tomioka Silk Mill is the "sister" of Yokosuka Shipyard

The Story of Yokosuka Ironworks (link)
Dutch Steam Hammer (link)
Latest Aircraft Carriers and Docks at the End of Edo PeriodYokosuka Shipyard Tour
Yokosuka Shipyard "Japan-U.S. Friendship Base History Tour" (link)
Tomioka Silk MillExciting Exploration of Technology
Tomioka Silk Mill to a World Heritage Site: The Mill is now on the World Heritage Tentative List and is one step closer to becoming a World Heritage Site. (link)


The myth of the Kanrin Maru created by national school textbooks

The fate of the Shogunate, the fate of Japan" by Kozukenosuke Oguri