HP東善寺→横須賀造船所4つの特徴    横須賀造船所4つの特徴
Tozenji Temple Web site Four Features of Yokosuka Shipyard

日本産業革命の地 横須賀造船所4つの特徴  
Site of Japan's Industrial Revolution
 Four Features of Yokosuka Shipyard
 
横須賀から現代の生活につながっているもの
時間労働 日曜休日制  月給制 年功給・技能給  複式簿記  労務管理 健康管理  メートル法 

産業革命とは蒸気機関で生産するだけでなく、それに伴って生活自体に変革を伴うもの。
横須賀造船所はまさに日本に産業革命をもたらしたと言える



The following are some of the systems used at the Yokosuka Shipyard that are still used in our daily lives today:
Hourly work system, Sunday holiday system, Monthly salary system, Seniority pay and skill pay, Double-entry bookkeeping, Labor management, Health care and Metric system

The Industrial Revolution was not only about production with steam engines, but also about the accompanying changes in life itself. We can say that the Yokosuka Shipyard has truly brought the Industrial Revolution to Japan.
 

 
 
横須賀製鉄所(造船所) 四つの特徴
Four Features of Yokosuka Ironworks (Shipyard)


横須賀造船所(明治四年まで製鉄所と言った)の特徴として次の4つをあげておこう
 We list the following four Features of the Yokosuka Shipyard (called the Yokosuka Ironworks until 1871).


1.
何でも造る総合工場  だった
2.
慶応年間から蒸気機関による工業生産  をしていた
3.
教育機関で人づくり   をしていた
4. 近代経営の方式が定着

 
以上を総合して考えると、
横須賀製鉄所は日本産業革命の地と言えよう。

*工業史を研究している学者がこのことをなぜ言わないのか、不思議である。米軍基地内だから世界遺産にできないという言い訳はいらない。世界遺産になろうがなるまいが「日本産業革命の地」であることは変わらない。

1. It was a general factory that built everything.
2. It was performing Industrial production by steam engine evern from the Keio era (1865 - 1868).
3. It was training people in educational institutions.
4. It established the modern management methods.

Considering all of the above, we can say that Yokosuka Ironworks was the site of Japan's industrial revolution.

* A strange thing is that most scholars who study industrial history do not mention this fact. The fact that it is located on a U.S. military base is no excuse for not making it a World Heritage site. Whether it becomes a World Heritage site or not, it is still the "site of the Japanese Industrial Revolution."


1. 何でも造る総合工場
1. A comprehensive factory that built everything
 


     
製帆所・鉄工所 Sailmakers and iron factory    ▲製綱所 Rope mills
 

 
造船所は船だけ造るところではない、以下のように何でも造らなければ船は完成しない。造船所とは「船も」造る所だった。
 
The shipyard is not only a place where ships are built, but also a place where everything must be built to complete a ship, as shown below. The shipyard was a place where "ships were also built."


 横須賀製鉄所では蒸気機関、大炮、銃、砲弾や弾丸、鍋・釜・スプーンフォークからドアノブまであらゆる鉄製品のほか、船を造るためのたくさんの工業製品を造っていた。

例えば、製帆所ー蒸気船が主流になりつつある幕末だが、蒸気船でもふだんは石炭を節約して風で航海していた(機帆船という)から、製帆所で帆布を織って、切って、縫って、帆を製作していた。

例えば、製綱所ー帆を開いたり閉じたりするロープを製綱所で造っていた。上の写真「製綱所」の長い建物が製綱所(ロープ工場)である。

例えば、木工所ー当時は黒船といっても船体は木造だったから、構内の木工所で材木をアク抜きし、乾かして加工し船体、船室、床、天井、壁、階段などすべて木で作っていた。

もちろん鉄工所が構内の主流だった。蒸気機関を造るだけでなく、構造・機能・効率が研究され、船体工学と合わせて船舶工学が当時最高の工学の位置を占めていた。

 ほかにネジはもちろん、あらゆる工具・部品・工業製品をここで造って「船も造った」から、造船所の周辺に下請工場がない。下請けできる技術を持った民間業者がいないし、下請けに出す必要がなかったのだ。明治後年になると民間のロープ会社のロープで間に合うようになって明治21年に製綱所が稼働停止するなど、民間業者が発達していった。

 以上の作業の原動力はすべて蒸気機関を用いていた。

At the Yokosuka Ironworks, they were producing many industrial products used to build ships, including iron products such as steam engines, guns, cannons, shells and bullets, pots, kettles, spoon forks, and doorknobs.

For example, see the sailmaker's shop. At the end of the Edo period, steamships were becoming the mainstream, but even steamships usually sailed on the wind to save coal (called "motor sailing ships"), so sailcloth was woven, cut, and sewn at the sailmaker's shop to make sails.

For example, see the rope mills in the photo above. The mill was producing the ropes that opened and closed the sails. The long building in the photo on the left is a rope factory.

For example, see the wood shop. In those days, the hulls of ships, including the Kurofune* ships, were made of wood, so the lumber was scoured, dried, and processed in the woodworking shop on the premises, and the hull, cabin, floor, ceiling, walls, stairs, etc. were all made of wood.

  
* People in Japan at the time called all the ships from the western countries as "Kurofune" (black ships) beause the hulls were painted black.

Of course, the ironworks was the central player in the yard. In addition to building steam engines, the structure, the function, and the efficiency were studied, and together with hull engineering, naval engineering occupied the highest position in engineering at that time in Japan.

In addition to screws, all kinds of tools, parts, and industrial products were made here, and ships were also built here, so there were no subcontracting factories around the shipyard. There were no private companies with the technology to do so and there was no need to subcontract in the first place. In the later years of the Meiji era, they were able to make do with ropes produced by private rope companies, and the rope mills stopped operating in 1888, and private contractors developed.

All of the above operations were powered by steam engines.


2. 慶応年間から蒸気機関による工業生産
2. Industrial production using steam engines beginning in the Keio era (1865 - 1868)


 
▲製綱所(ロープ工場) 
どの工場も工場ごとの小型の蒸気機関で生産をしていた。ここが日本最初の近代ロープ製造の地である。

 
▲ The Rope Factory:
Each factory used its own small steam engine for production. This was the site of Japan's first modern rope production.
 
 慶応元年1865に横須賀製鉄所の建設が始まった。構内のどの工場も完成すればすぐにそれぞれの蒸気機関を稼働して部品の生産を行ったから、慶応年間にはたくさんの工場が生産体制に入っている。

 従来の日本の工業の原動力は、人力ー牛馬ー水車の力までだった。横須賀には大きな川がないから水力をアテにしていない、造船所ははじめから蒸気機関を原動力として設計されていたので「蒸気機関を原動力とする日本最初の総合工場」と言える。司馬遼太郎が「かつてここは日本の近代工学のいっさいの源泉であった」(「三浦半島記」)と書くゆえんである。

 学校で「蒸気機関の使用から産業革命が始まった」と教えながら、横須賀製鉄所の史実を無視して教科書で「日本近代化の例」として富岡製糸場から教えているのは不思議でならない。

 
2015平成27年に「明治日本の産業革命遺産ー製鉄・鉄鋼・造船・石炭産業ー」として世界遺産となった施設を見ると、蒸気機関の使用は小菅修船場跡1868明治元年だけで、その他の蒸気機関を用いている施設はほとんどが明治30~40年代。その他は原動力が水力であり、大板山たたら製鉄遺跡(山口県萩市)のごとき足踏みフイゴを原動力とする施設さえ入っている。「努力遺産」としては認められようがこの程度のものがどうして産業革命遺産に入るのだろう。

  
 Construction of the Yokosuka Ironworks began in 1865, the first year of Keio. As soon as the construction was completed, all the factories in Yokosuka started operating their own steam engines to produce various parts, and many factories began production during the Keio period.

 In the past, the driving force of Japanese industry had been human power, oxen and horses, and even water mills. Yokosuka does not have a large river, so it did not rely on water power. The shipyard was designed from the beginning to be powered by steam engines, so it can be called "Japan's first comprehensive factory powered by steam engines." That is why Ryotaro Shiba wrote, "This was once the source of all modern engineering in Japan" in his work, "Miura Peninsula Chronicles."

 It is quite surprising that schools in Japan teach that the Industrial Revolution began with the use of steam engines, but ignore the historical facts of the Yokosuka Ironworks and start with the Tomioka Silk Mill as an example of Japanese modernization in school textbooks.

 ◆ In 2015, the "Industrial Revolution Heritage of Meiji Japan - Iron, Steel, Shipbuilding, and Coal Industries" was designated as a World Heritage Site, but looking at the facilities designated as World Heritage sites, only the Kosuge Shusenjo Site (1868) used steam engines, and most other facilities using steam engines dated from the Meiji 30s and 40s. Other facilities were powered by hydraulic power, and even some, such as the Ohitayama Tatara Iron Works site (Hagi, Yamaguchi Prefecture), were powered by foot-pedal flogging. While this may be recognized as a "Heritage of Effort," how can something of this level be included in the Heritage of the Industrial Revolution?



3. 教育機関で人づくり
3. Human resource development in educational institutions 

        
       黌舎  Kosha School                機関学校 Kikan Gakkoh (Engineering School)

 モノづくりの原点は人づくり。正確な作業が継続して行われることが必要である。横須賀には慶応年間から職工・技師を育てる学校「黌舎」が設置され、明治初年には更に高度な造船工学を学ぶ「海軍機関学校」が設けられた。
 フランス人技師長ヴェルニーがいずれ日本人だけで運営できるよう計らった措置が基点となっている。誠意と熱意を持って製鉄所建設にあたったフランス人たちの志の高さが最も感じられる施設がこの黌舎と機関学校であろう。結果論になるが、フランスに建設指導を仰いだことは正解だった。

ちなみに、生野銀山の近代化を指導したフランス人技師コワニエも生野に鉱山学校を開設して若者の育成を図っている。 
 

 The starting point of manufacturing is human resource development. It is necessary for accurate work to be performed continuously. In Yokosuka, Kosha School for training craftsmen and engineers was established during the Keio period (1865-1868), and in the first year of the Meiji period (1868-1912), a "Naval Engineering School" was established to study even more advanced shipbuilding engineering.

 It was based on the measures taken by the French chief engineer, Verney, to ensure that the plant could eventually be operated by only Japanese. The school building and the engine school are probably the facilities where we can feel the most that the high aspirations of the French people who worked with sincerity and enthusiasm to build the ironworks. As a result, it was a good decision to ask the French for construction guidance.

 Incidentally, Jean-François Coignet, the French engineer who guided the modernization of the Ikuno Silver Mine, also opened a mining school in Ikuno to train young people.

 
  
黌 舎
 「黌舎・こうしゃ」と呼ばれる職工学校を設け、優秀な職工や技師を育てて現場に送った。

 慶応二年開校で授業料は無料、小遣いまで支給された。初めは近在農漁村の子弟中心だったが、卒業すれば間違いなく造船所で雇ってもらえ、家族を養えるほどの給料をもらえることから人気が高まり、全国から優秀な若者が殺到するようになった。後にはここに入るための予備校までできたという。
 
 定員60名。フランス語、数学、物理、船舶工学を学び大学理工学部または高等工業専門学校卒業程度の知識と技術を身に着けた若者が、優秀な職工や技術者となって巣立っていった。高等技術者と職工を同じ場所で育成したのは珍しい方式といわれる。

 例えば、辰巳一少年は石川県金沢から歩いて横須賀の黌舎に入学、努力の末フランスに留学派遣されるまでの力をつけ、後に造船大監となった。
富岡製糸場の建設に際し、黌舎卒業生の川島忠之助が富岡へ派遣されて正式通訳を行い、のちにジュールベルヌ『80日間世界一周』を翻訳出版している。

 すべての建設作業、製造作業がフランス式にメートル法で行われ、日本人がそれに慣れていったことは、画期的なことと言えよう。
    

  
Kosha School

 A school for artisans called the "Kosha School" was established to train excellent artisans and engineers and send them to the field. The school opened in 1866, the 2nd year of Keio Era, and tuition was free, and even an allowance was provided. At first, most of the students were from nearby farming and fishing villages, but once they graduated, they were sure to be hired by the shipyard and earn enough to support their families, so the popularity of the program grew and talented young people from all over the country began to pour in. It is said that a preparatory school was even established to prepare students to enter the school.
 
 The school had a capacity of 60 students. Young people who had studied French, mathematics, physics, and naval engineering, and had acquired knowledge and skills equivalent to those of graduates of university science and engineering schools or technical colleges, left the school to become excellent craftsmen and engineers. It is said to be a rare method to train both engineers and technicians in the same place.

 For example, one boy, Hajime Tatsumi, walked from Kanazawa in Ishikawa Prefecture to Yokosuka to enter Kosha School, and after much effort, he was able to study in France and later became a general superintendent for shipbuilding.
 

 All construction and manufacturing work was done in the French metric system, and the Japanese became accustomed to it, which was a breakthrough for Japan. KOZEN


機関学校   Engineering School

  機関学校

  
黌舎より上級クラスの学校として「機関学校」を設けて船の設計もできる幹部養成を図った。

 明治初年に開校。やはり授業料は無料、小遣いまでもらえたので、全国から優秀な若者が集まり、最高の船舶工学を学び船の設計までできる技術将校が育成された。

 東京大学工学部学生はここで学んで現場実習をしないと卒業単位が認められなかった。

 芥川龍之介はここで英語を教えた。中島知久平(群馬県尾島村)はこの機関学校を卒業して海軍技術将校となり、のちに中島飛行機(戦後の財閥解体で、
いまスバル自動車・群馬県太田市や、ニッサンプリンス自動車・IHIエアロスペースなど)を興した。 

  
 Engineering School

 The "Engineerin School" was established as a higher class school than Kosha School, in order to train executives who could also design ships.

 The school opened in 1868, the first year of the Meiji Era. As expected, there was no tuition fee, and students even received an allowance, so talented young people from all over the country came to the school to learn the best in marine engineering and train technical officers who could even design ships.

 Students of the University of Tokyo's Faculty of Engineering had to study at the school and do field work in order to receive graduation credits.

 Ryunosuke Akutagawa taught English at this school. Chikuhei Nakajima (Ojima-mura, Gunma Prefecture) graduated from this engineering school, became a naval engineering officer, and later founded Nakajima Aircraft Co. After the war, the company was dissolved as a zaibatsu and split into the current Subaru Motor Corporation (Ota City, Gunma Prefecture), Nissan Prince Motors, IHI Aerospace, and others.



 4. 近代経営の方式が定着
4. Well-established modern management methods

製綱所の時計塔  Clock tower at the rope mill

  横須賀製鉄所(のち造船所)は経営すべてをフランス人に任せ、日本人がフランス式に合わせて働いた。

 製綱所の先端についている時計塔は、決まった時間で働き決まった時間に終業する定時労働の基本となった。日本中ほとんどの家に時計がなく標準時間もない時代だったから、お寺の鐘や、鶏の鳴き声、外の明るさかげんで起床し、弁当を持って家を出て時計塔が「7時」までに入所することになっていた。この時計塔が三浦半島一帯の標準時計だった。15分遅刻すると一日欠勤扱いになったという。
 たとえば、走水から通う職工は冬は暗いうちに弁当と提灯を持って歩き出し、走水から小原台の山越えで馬堀へ出て、途中で明るくなると知り合いの家に提灯を預ける。帰りに提灯を受け取り、また明かりをつけて帰宅していた。走水からの水道トンネルが拡張され人が通れるようになると山越えしなくてすむと喜んだ
 
、そのほか日曜休日、メートル法、課長、係長などの職階と責任、年功給、能率給、近代簿記、などの西洋式経営が横須賀から日本全国に根付いていった。


 The Yokosuka Ironworks (later the shipyard) left all management to the French, and the Japanese worked according to the French style.

 The clock tower at the end of the shipyard became the basis for the fixed working hours, with work done at a fixed time and finished at a fixed hour. Since most houses in Japan did not have clocks or standard time, workers would get up at the sound of temple bells, clucking chickens, or the brightness of the outside sky, leave the house with their lunch box, and enter the shipyard by "7 o'clock" on the clock tower. This clock tower became the standard clock for the entire Miura Peninsula area. If a worker was 15 minutes late, he or she was considered absent from work for the day.  

 For example, in winter, workers commuting from Hashirimizu would walk out in the dark with their lunch boxes and lanterns, cross the mountains at Oharadai from Hashirimizu to Mabori, and leave their lanterns at a friend's house when it became light on the way home. On the way back, he would pick up the lanterns, turn on the light again, and return home. When a tunnel from Hashirimizu was widened to allow people to pass through, they were happy that they did not have to go over the mountains.  

 In addition, Western-style management such as Sundays and holidays, the metric system, job classifications and responsibilities such as section chiefs and section managers, seniority pay, efficiency pay, and modern bookkeeping took root from Yokosuka to the rest of Japan.


 
生野銀山
Ikuno Ginzan (sivler mine)
 
  
モデル鉱山 生野銀山は横須賀製鉄所の義弟

明治政府は、明治元年10月官営鉱山としてフランス人技師フランソワ・コワニエを招請、生野銀山(兵庫県朝来市)に新技術導入による経営改善を図り、製鉱所(精錬所)を建設。

コワニエは採掘用機械・鉱石処理用の溶鉱炉などの諸設備の製作・輸入を横須賀製鉄所に発注、機械や鉱山用の照明ランプなどを自ら設計もした。その他蒸気機関や大小800種類もの器具が横須賀製鉄所で製作され、製作できないものは横須賀製鉄所を経由してフランスから輸入された。

横須賀製鉄所から購入した蒸気機関や機械類によりエレベータや輸送用の馬車道を整備するなど日本の近代化鉱業のモデル鉱山となって、技師や熟練鉱夫が全国の鉱山に派遣され、日本中の鉱山に普及していった。

 
 The model mine
Ikuno Ginzan (sivler mine) is the brother-in-law of Yokosuka Ironworks

 In October of the first year of the Meiji era (1868-1912), the Meiji government invited French engineer, Francois Coignet, to work at the Ikuno Silver Mine (Asago City, Hyogo Prefecture) as a government-owned mine, and built a smelter to improve management by introducing new technology.

 Coignet ordered the Yokosuka Ironworks to manufacture and import various equipment such as mining machinery and blast furnaces for ore processing, and designed the machinery and lighting lamps for the mine himself. In addition, the Yokosuka Ironworks manufactured steam engines and 800 types of equipment of various sizes, and those that could not be manufactured were imported from France via the Yokosuka Works.

 The steam engines and machinery purchased from the Yokosuka Works were used to build elevators and carriage roads for transportation, making it a model mine for Japan's modernized mining industry.


 
  関連ページ

横須賀造船所の借款説:約定書の読み違いで濡れ衣
小栗の濡れ衣・四国・蝦夷を担保にした:幕末世情混乱の中の根無し草
「土蔵つき売家」の横須賀造船所のページ
「土蔵付売り据え」横須賀造船所は売家につける土蔵…小栗上野介の言葉
レンガのページ:やっと入手できた、横須賀で作られたレンガ
森林保護育成の提唱:造船には多量の木材が必要だから・・・

技師長フランソワ・レオンス・ヴェルニー:横須賀市のページ(リンク)
横須賀明細一覧図を読む:近代工業の先端設備をそろえ、多くの見物客でにぎわった
いまの横須賀造船所「日米親善ベース歴史ツアー」(リンク)
勝海舟の「海軍500年説」は:「海舟日記」の信憑性ゆらぐ
東郷元帥の謝辞:日本海海戦の勝利は小栗さんのおかげ・・・
幕末の構造改革:ネジをお土産にした小栗上野介
横須賀製鉄所の妹、弟、孫の確認作業を(村上泰賢)

◇ オランダ製スチームハンマー(リンク)  
最新空母と幕末のドック:旧横須賀造船所見学ツアー
富岡製糸工場:技術のわくわく探検記(リンク)

小栗上野介の言葉「幕府の運命、日本の運命
 …造船所建設の反対意見に答えた小栗の信条は「土蔵付き売据え」


 
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Dutch Steam Hammer (link)  
Latest Aircraft Carriers and Docks at the End of Edo Period: Yokosuka Shipyard Tour
The Tomioka Silk Mill:An Exciting Exploration of Technology (link)


"The fate of the Shogunate, the fate of Japan" by Kozukenosuke Oguri
… Oguri's creed in response to the opposition to the construction of the shipyard was "selling a house with storehouse."