東善寺HP>小栗上野介>遣米使節  史跡調査 遣米使節の旅 ハワイを訪ねる 2019令和元年4月 
Kozuke Tadamasa Oguri in Hawai   The Journey of the Japanese Delegation in 1860-Historical Site Research in Hawai in April 2019


                         史料調査 Historical Research
          ハワイの遣米使節

                 The Japanese Embassy’s visit to Hawaii on the way to the U.S.A. mainland
                                                                 

   ハワイ州旗 hawaii state flag
 オアフ島 ホノルルHonolulu on Oahu Island
     
       ▲ホノルル(合諾魯路) 小栗忠順の従者木村鉄太(熊本藩士)『航米記』より
The port of Honolulu    Drawn by Tetsuta Kimura, a follower to Kozukenosuke Oguri
and a retainer of the Kumamoto Domain, in his diary, “Kobeiki”

 
万延元年遣米使節一行は安政七年一月十八日(1860年2月9日・木)築地から品川沖のポウハタン号に乗り込み出発。北太平洋の低気圧による大嵐に遭遇、破損船体の修理と石炭・水補給のため、南に転進してハワイに寄港した。
The Japanese Embassy got on board the USS Powhatan off Shinagawa from a smaller vessel which had carried them from Tsukiji, and departed Yedo for the United States of America on Thursday, Februay 9, 1860. They encountered a big storm caused by a depression in north Pacific and had some damage on the vessel. They had to change the course for Hawaii to have the damage repaired and coal and water refilled.  
二月十三日(3月4日・日) 
ハワイ・ホノルル着―(14日間滞在)―二月二十六日(3月17日・土) ホノルルを発してサンフランシスコへ向かった。  
They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, March 4, 1860. After staying there for 14 days, they left Honolulu on March 17, 1860 for San Francisco.
公式な日本人がハワイを訪れたのはこれが最初である 
That was the first official visit of Japanese people to Hawaii.
◆咸臨丸はサンフランシスコからの帰途に寄港(四月四日~七日)。
Kanrinmaru arrived at Hawaii on May 24 and left on May 27 on the way back from San Francisco to Japan.
◆今回は4月17日~19日、遣米使節子孫の会の現地集合・現地解散ツアーによる調査
The Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the U.S.A. in 1860 visited Hawaii from April 17 till April 19, 2019 and conducted historical research.
 

日本文化センター訪問  日本人移民の歴史  強制収容
 Visit to the Japanese Cultural Center History of Japanese immigrants Wartime Internment
結団会食 4/17 12:00現地集合 シェラトンワイキキの「吉屋」で顔合わせと、スケジュールの発表など
Dining at the “Yoshiya” restaurant in Sheraton Waikiki Hotel on April 17: It was the first meeting among the members during the trip. After we introduced ourselves each other, the research schedule was announced. 
日本文化センター 子孫の会一行をレイで迎えてくれた。明治元年から始まった移民の苦難の歴史を伝える努力をしている日本文化センターは、ハワイで必見の場所
 The Japanese Cultural Center:  The members of the Society were welcomed by the members of the Center with leis. The Center has been handing down the hardship of Japanese immigrants who came to Hawaii since 1868, the first year of the Meiji Era.
The Center is a required stop in Hawaii for Japanese people.
▲ハワイ州のイゲ知事(日系)が歓迎の挨拶をしてくれる(右)。カメハメハ王はアメリカの圧迫を避けたくて、ハワイ王国―日本の積極的な条約締結を提案したが、使節は急な寄港でその権限を持っていないと断る。欧米人がもたらしたハンセン病・天然痘・性病でハワイ人の人口14.3万人が1855年には7.3万人に半減。明治になって、砂糖産業の労働力として勤勉正直な日本人の移民が始まった。 
 Hawaii state governor, Mr. David Ige, a Japanese descendant, made a welcome speech (right). When the Japanese Embassy came to Hawaii in 1860, the King Kamehameha IV who wanted to avoid pressure from U.S.A. proposed a treaty to be concluded between the Hawaii Kingdom and Japan. However, the Embassy turned it down, saying they did not have any authority to do so because they simply dropped in at Hawaii with emergency. The population of Hawaii had decreased from at least 300,000 in late 1780s to 73,000 in 1855 because of diseases such as leprosy, smallpox and venereal diseases brought by European people. Japanese people began to immigrate to Hawaii in the Meiji Era to work in the sugar industry and showed their diligence and honesty.


ホノウリウリ強制収容所 日本文化センターのボランティアたちが探し続けて2002年に発見されるまで忘れられた場所だった。2007年にこの土地周辺を買い入れたモンサント・ハワイ社は元収容所地域を連邦政府に譲渡して、国指定史跡の認定につながった。  

■文化センターパンフレット「ホノウリウリ」より
                  
▲第二次大戦中ハワイでも日系人強制収容があった!
Even in Hawaii, Japanese Americans were interned during the second world war!
 人口の40%近くを占める日系人を全員強制収容するとハワイの経済が成り立たなくなるので、ハワイでは日系人の強制収容はなかったと聞いていたが、「ホノウリウリ」収容所などに校長・教師・地域リーダー・僧侶・牧師・新聞記者など指導層がピックアップされ、ドイツ系・イタリア系アメリカ人や捕虜などと収容された歴史があった

 It was broadly said that Japanese Americans in Hawaii had not been interned during the second world war because, if they who comprised of nearly 40% of Hawaii’s population at the time had been interned, the economy of Hawaii would have become dysfunctional. In fact, though, there was a historical fact that many Japanese Americans of school presidents, teachers, local leaders, Buddhism and Christian priests and newspaper reporters were interned together with war prisoners as well as German and Italian Americans.
 ハワイ州全島で17か所あった内最大の「ホノウリウリ収容所跡」が近年に発見された(左地図)。   Honouliuli Internment Camp, the biggest among 17 camps in Hawaii, was recently discovered (the map on the left). 
▲Honouliuli Internment Camp: The camp was almost forgotten until when volunteers of the Japanese Cultural Center found it in 2002 after a long time of search. Monsanto Hawaii company who bought the land of the camp in 2007 transferred it to the federal government, which eventually led to the designation of the site as a new national monument.
■Excerpts from the Japanese Cultural Center’s brochure, “Honouliuli”

▲オバマ大統領(中央)が訪れた
   President Obama visited the site (center in the photo).  
国指定史跡 オバマ大統領が2015年に訪れ「自由と正義を追求する決意を新たにする場所」として指定した
National monument: President Barack Obama visited the site in 2015 and designated it as a national monument as “a place to recommit ourselves to the pursuit of freedom and justice.”
ダイヤモンドヘッド パンチボウル山近くの山から見ると、景観が変わる。たしかに火山
Diamond Head: It looks different to see from a mountain of the Punchbowl Tantalus range than from the Waikiki area. It surely looks like a volcano here.
▲海鮮料理店 港近くのおいしい店だった。ポキはマグロのこと。おいしく料理されていた。
Fresh seafood restaurant: Located near the port, they served good dishes. Poke fish, a kind of tuna, was well prepared.
「元年者」記念碑除幕式  
Unveiling Ceremony of a “Gannenmono” monument  
「元年者」の碑除幕式4/18 明治元年に初めて移民がハワイに渡り、苦労した人々を「gannenmono」と呼び、尊敬されている。その記念碑除幕式が市庁舎前で行われ遣米使節子孫の会も招かれて参列した。記念碑の下にはタイムカプセルが入っていて、50年後に開けるとのこと。
参考ページ:元年者渡航150周年(リンク)
Unveiling Ceremony of a “Gannenmono”
(the first Japanese immigrants to Hawaii in 1868) monument on April 18, 2019:
The first Japanese immigrants to Hawaii in 1868 are called “Gannenmono” and are well respected because they had to endure the hardship as pioneers. The unveiling ceremony of a Gannenmono monument was held in front of the Honolulu City Hall and we, the members of the Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy, attended it at the organizer’s invitation. A time capsule is laid under the monument which will be opened 50 years later.  Referential Web-site: 150 years after the Gannenmono immigration in 1868 (link)
▲除幕式 初めにハワイ式のお払い、次に仏教式で散華したあと、神式でお祓い・除幕・式辞・祝辞と続いた。イゲ(伊藝)知事が祝辞。知事は当時のジョージ・アリヨシ州知事から指名されハワイ議会下院議員から議員生活をスタートしている。
UnveilingEvent: At first, purification in Hawaiian way and flower-scattering in Buddhism way were done, then purification, unveiling, ceremonial address and congratulatory address in Shinto style were done. Governor David Ige made the congratulatory address. Mr. Ige went into politics in 1985 when he was appointed to the Hawaii House of Representatives by then Governor George Ariyoshi.
州庁舎 文献閲覧・議会見学・知事面閲  
 Hawaii State Capital
Literature browsing, visit to the Houses of Senators and Representatives and meeting with Governor
州庁舎 柱がヤシの木を表し、黒く丸い壁が火山を表現しているという。黒い壁の中が議会2階の傍聴席になっていた
State Capital building: The columns are shaped to resemble palm trees and the two black cone-shaped walls represent Hawaii’s volcanoes. Inside the two walls are the second floors of the two state legislature chambers (Houses of Representatives and Senate) from where audiences can see the proceedings on the first floor.
古文書展示 庁舎の4階廊下に特別展示してくれた
Archive display: They displayed archives on the 4th floor hallways specially for our visit.  
     
「小栗豊後守」の署名を確認出来た


  ▲The signature of “Bungonokami  Oguri” was surely found. 
 ▲フレンチホテル 遣米使節一行が滞在したホテルの写真(上)があった。下は木村鉄太の絵
French Hotel: (Top) A picture of French Hotel where the Japanese Embassy stayed in 1860 and (Bottom) Drawing of the hotel by Tetsuta Kimura
▲ 貴重な資料をまとめて廊下に展示してくれた。 この後上下両院議会を見学し、子孫の会村垣会長はスピーチをして挨拶、議員全員が署名した認証書をいただいた。
They displayed invaluable pieces of historical material well in the hallways. After browsing them, we were allowed to see both houses and Mr. Muragaki, the president of the Society of Descendants of the Japanese Embassy, made a speech of greetings in the House of Representatives, who later gave us a certificate of attestation with signatures by all.
   
▲イゲ知事を表敬訪問
Courtesy visit to Governor David Ige
感謝の夕食会 Dinner with thanks   
     
夕食会 ハワイ探訪でお世話になった人を招いてアラモアナショッピングセンターの中華料理店で感謝の夕食会
Dinner Party: We held a dinner party at a Chinese restaurant in Ala Moana Shopping Center
to thank people in Hawaii who helped us conduct the research.
 
イオラニ宮殿 カメハメハの子孫  王国を偲ぶ
Iolani Palace
 A descendant of the King Kamehameha family  Remembering the Hawaii Kingdom
     
イオラニ宮殿  宮殿前でカメハメハ王の傍系子孫の一人と面会。カメハメハ王朝は短命で次々に病気で亡くなり、直系子孫は残らなかった。
 Iolani Palace: We met a descendant of a collateral family of King Kamehameha in front of the palace. The people of the Kamehameha dynasty were mostly short-lived in diseases and left no direct descent.
   
  ▲イオラニ宮殿  一時はほとんどの財物が王朝滅亡とともに売り払われたが、少しずつ買い戻しあるいは復元して展示に努めている。明治14年に来日したカラカウア王に天皇家から贈られたとみられる、菊の紋入りの壺もあった。Iolani Palace: Most of the possessions were sold out when the dynasty fell, but they were bought back or restored little by little to be displayed. We found the vase designed with chrysanthemum flower which the Emperor of Japan might have presented to King Kalakaua when he visited Japan in 1881 (the year of Meiji 14).

▲リリウオカラニ女王像  
The statue of Queen Liliuokalani
 
リリウオカラニ女王 
Queen Liliuokalani
1891年カラカウア王が病死するとリリウオカラニが女王となり、共和制派と対立した。1893年1月、共和制派は米公使の要請で海兵隊が宮殿を包囲し、政庁舎を占拠、王政廃止と臨時政府樹立を宣言した(ハワイ革命)。リリウオカラニは無実の罪を着せられて宮殿に幽閉され、女王退位を強制されてハワイ王国は滅亡した。
 
In 1891, Liliuokalani became the queen after King Kalakaua died of disease and stood against the republicanism power. In January 1893,  the republicanism power joined by U.S. Marines requested by the then U.S. Minister to Hawaii surrounded the palace, occupied the government buildings, declared dissolving of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the establishment of a provisional government (Hawaii Rebellions). Two years later in 1895, Hawaiian royalists launched a coup against the republicans but failed, and Queen Liliuokalani was put under house arrest in the palace for a crime she did not commit and forced to abdicate to dissolve the monarchy.
リリウオカラニは「アロハオエ」などたくさん作詞作曲。
Liliuokalani wrote and composed many songs including “Aloha Oe.”
 
カメハメハ4世
King Kamehameha IV

▲カメハメハ4世とエマ王妃  木村鉄太『航米記』
King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma Drawn by Tetsuta Kimura in his diary, “Kobeiki
 アメリカは米墨(アメリカ―メキシコ)戦争、南北戦争を経て植民地拡張に入り、ハワイに大規模砂糖農場を開いた白人たちが共和制を唱えて発言を増していった。一方ハワイ人の民族意識が高まって王政派が組織され、対立が深まった。1887年共和制派のクーデターにより、カラカウア王は新憲法に署名を余儀なくされ、国王は権限を制限され議会に委譲することになった。参政権は一部富裕層にしか与えられず、ハワイ人、アジア人の権利を排除するものであった。
After the Mexican-American War and the Civil War, the U.S.A. entered into the era of colonialism and white people who were operating big sugar plantations in Hawaii gradually became influential in support of republicanism. Meanwhile, some Hawaiian people with stronger ethnic consciousness organized a movement to support the kingdom and began to confront the republicanism. In 1887, the republicans launched a coup d’etat and King Kalakaua was forced to sign a new constitution, lose much of his power and transfer it to the parliamentary body. Voting rights were given only to wealthy people and Hawaiian people and Asian descendants were deprived of much of their rights.
 
 
リリウオカラニの私邸あるいはイオラニ宮殿の庭からたくさんの銃器が見つかったとして、リリウオカラニは反乱の首謀者の容疑で逮捕され、イオラニ宮殿に幽閉された。反乱で捕らえられた約200人の命と引き換えに、リリオウカラニは女王廃位の署名を強制され、ハワイ王国は滅亡した。
In January 1895, the rebellion launched by people supporting the monarchy failed and many firearms were allegedly found in the Liliuokalani’s house and Iolani Palace. Liliuokalani was arrested as the leader of the rebellion and imprisoned in the Iolani Palace. She was then forced to sign the document of abdication in return for the release of her jailed supporters of about 200 and the Kingdom of Hawaii ended.
     
 ▲  1882年に竣工、カラカウア王―リリウオカラニ女王が使って王朝が終わった。残念ながら遣米使節がカメハメハ4世王に会ったのはこの宮殿ではない
The palace was completed in 1882 and King Kalakaua and Queen Liliuokalani lived there. This is not the place, though, where the Japanese Embassy met King Kamehameha IV in 1860.
     
ワシントンプレースLiliuokalani が女王になる前の1862年から、一階寝室で亡くなった1917年まで住んだ邸宅。彼女が1893年にハワイ新政府軍に逮捕されたのもここだった。
 Washington Place:  Liliuokalani lived in this house since 1862 when she was not the queen yet till 1917 when she died in a bedroom on the first floor. This was the place where she was arrested by the new Hawaiian government in 1893.        ▲木村鉄太の絵 Drawing of the old palace by Tetsuta Kimura.
▲建物の規模、門からの距離も似ている  佐藤藤七『渡海日記』より
This is a drawing of the old palace by Toshichi Sato in his diary, “Tokai Nikki.” Looking at the drawing, we can notice that the dimensions of and the distance from the gate to Washinton Place resemble those of the old palace. 
     
アロハオエのプレート 上の元王宮?の生垣にあった  リリウオカラニが作詞・作曲
 Monumental plate of “Aloha Oe” in the hedgerow of Washington Place: The song was written and composed by Queen Liliuokalani.
教会  ハワイで最も古い教会という 基本形が右の絵「耶蘇堂」と共通する
 Mokuaikaua Church: It is the oldest Christian Church in Hawaii. It resembles “Yaso-do” on the right in its basic form.
         ▲木村鉄太『航米記』 
                    Drawing by Tetsuta Kimura in his diary “Kobeiki”
 
エマ王妃の離宮  Queen Emma Summer Palace
 
▲佐藤藤七の絵
 
 エマ王妃の離宮 山風が流れる地域にあって涼しく、周辺に各国領事館や寺院がたくさんある。博物館になっていて、珍しい資料がたくさん保管展示されていた  
Queen Emma Summer Palace:Located in a valley where mountain breeze brings down cool air, there are some consular offices and various temples in the vicinity. The palace is now used as a museum to display and preserve rare artifacts and documents. 
   
家具調度品 なんとなく女性の部屋らしい細やかさが感じられる 
Household equipment
  There is an atmosphere of sensitivity as woman’s rooms.
 絵は木村鉄太 Drawing by Tetsuta Kimura
     
▲ フラ  18世紀にフラはキリスト教宣教師によって「みだら」な踊りとして、サーフィンと共に禁止された。一神教のキリスト教としては天地自然のあらゆるものを神とあがめ、それに踊りを捧げ供物や心を捧げるフラは多神教に通じるから認めない、ということだろう。
 In 18th century, Hula was banned as an “obscene” dancing together with surfing by Christianity missionaries. They, who believed in monotheism, probably could not accept polytheism which they found in Hula as indigenous people worshiped everything in the nature as gods through Hula and dedicated the dancing, offerings and their spirits to the gods.

 「彼らは私たちにキリスト教の神を信じることを押し付けようと、彼等にとって異教徒の踊りだったフラを止めさせようとしたのです。自分たちの国で、自分たちの文化と習慣を生きるという当たり前のことができなくなってしまったのです。そんな時代をくぐりぬけて、私たちは今もフラを踊り続けているのです。」HP「歴史に刻まれたフラの光と陰」より
 ”Americans wanted to force Hawaiian people to believe in Christianity and tried to ban Hula which they thought was a heathen dance. As a result, Hawaiian people had to abandon their habit, which was nothing special, of practicing their own culture and customs in their own country. With that experience in the past, we still continue to do Hula dancing.”  Excerpts from a Web site titled “Light and shadow of Hula remembered in history” 
フラの歴史(リンク) History of Hula (link)

 カラカウア王はその状況を打破しようと積極的に働きかけ、フラやサーフィンの復活、ハワイの習慣、儀式、ハワイ語の使用を勧め、ハワイ人としてのアイデンティティーと誇りを復活させようと努力した。
 King Kalākaua actively tried to change the situation by promoting revival of Hula and surfing, practice of Hawaiian customs and rituals, and usage of Hawaiian language so that they could regain the identity and pride as Hawaiians.


❏遣米使節一行はフラの衰退期に訪れたため、一行の記録にフラ・踊りは見られない。
 Since the Japanese Embassy visited Hawaii when Hula was in its decline period, no member of the Embassy wrote about Hula.
 伊香保温泉-ハワイ-フィラデルフィア
Ikaho Hot Springs – Hawaii – Philadelphia

▲アーウィンの別邸 Summer house of Robert Irwin in Ikaho hot springs, Gunma Prefecture
 ◆群馬県伊香保温泉にハワイ総領事ロバートアーウィンの別荘が残り、資料館もある
 The summer house of Mr. Robert Irwin, the Kingdom of Hawaii's Minister to Japan in Meiji period, still exists in Ikaho Hot Springs, Gunma Prefecture, Japan with an annexed museum. https://photoguide.jp/w/index.php?title=Robert_Walker_Irwin&mobileaction=toggle_view_desktop
 ・16歳の少年ロバートは、1860年遣米使節一行のパレードをフィラデルフィアで見て日本に憧れ、1866慶応二年に来日。貿易などで活躍するうち、明治14年のカラカウア王来日に際し世話役を依頼されみごとに勤めたことから、王からハワイ総領事に任ぜられた。
 Robert Irwin saw a parade of the Japanese Embassy in Philadelphia in 1860 when he was only 16 years old and was fascinated by them. He came to Japan in 1866 and began to work for an American transportation company. In 1881, he did so well in helping Hawaii’s King Kalakaua stay in Japan at the king’s request that the king assigned him as Hawaii’s Minister to Japan.
 ・「官約移民の父」…日本―ハワイで交わす条件を整備して、ハワイ移民に貢献したのでロバートはこう呼ばれた
 ”Father of Kanyaku Imin” (Kanyaku Imin = government-contracted emigration) – Robert Irwin was called “Father of Kanyaku Imin” since he contributed to the emigration of Japanese people to Hawaii by concluding a formal immigration treaty between Hawaii and Japan.
 ・日本女性との国際結婚第1号。日本政府が5年、アメリカ政府から11年かかって認められたという。
 Irwin was married to Takechi Iki on March 15, 1882 and it was the first legal marriage between an American and Japanese citizen. It took 5 years for the Japanese government and 11 years for the U.S. government to approve the marriage.
 ・ロバートはベンジャミンフランクリンの子孫  Robert Irwin is a descendant of Benjamin Franklin.

  
 参加者のHP
Homepages by members of the research visit to Hawaii:

「ハワイの野鳥」

柳原三佳(作家・会員)のハワイレポート
 Mika Yanagihara’s Hawaii Report (She is a writer and a member of the Society of Descendants of the First Japanese Embassy to the U.S.A. in 1860)
 
 

関連ページ  
世界一周の行程:学校で教えない遣米使節、日本人初の世界一周

遣米使節一行の旅コースを訪ねる・ワシントン編:海軍造船所の正門はまだ存在していた
け米使節の旅コースを訪ねる・フィラデルフィア編:日米金貨の全量分析実験を主張した小栗
遣米使節の旅コースを訪ねる・ニューヨーク編:ブロウドウェイを途中から迂回して

ブルック大尉:咸臨丸が沈まなかったのはブルックとジョン万次郎のおかげ
大統領の記念メダル:使節と従者全員に金・銀・銅のメダルが贈られた
小栗忠順の通貨交渉:フィラデルフィアで「ノー」といって進めさせた通貨実験は

世界一周をした名主・佐藤藤七:権田村名主が従者として世界一周
玉蟲左太夫:仙台藩士の見た世界は新鮮だった
遣米使節小栗の従者:小栗忠順の従者9名
遣米使節従者・三好権三…島根の人だった
木村鉄太の『航米記』
遣米使節の業績・・・1本のネジくぎを持ち帰った小栗
横須賀明細一覧図を読む…図から読み取れる産業革命の地横須賀

遣米使節三船…ポウハタン号で渡米。咸臨丸ではない
リーフレット『遣米使節三船』・・・教科書から咸臨丸をはずすため(日英語 Japanese-English版です)

■日の丸を国旗に決めた遣米使節…船印だった日の丸を国印に決めた

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「木村摂津守喜毅は副使」「副使が乗る船が咸臨丸」という説の誤り…近年広まった副使説、根源はどこか
修身教科書が作った咸臨丸神話・・・国定教科書が教えた虚構
「咸臨丸病」の日本人…何でも咸臨丸・勝海舟を出さないと気がすまない症候群

「パウハタン号の町・伊豆下田」

帆船模型作家・岡崎英幸さんに感謝状…おかげで「遣米使節三船」がそろいました
トミーポルカ…アメリカで大人気となった少年通訳立石斧次郎の音楽
遣米使節とアメリカの酪農 …初めてアイスクリームを食べた日本人

Bridge of Hope(English) …JEWL発行の本で小栗上野介の業績紹介
初めての遣米使節・日米交流(リンク)
遣米使節一行一覧表(リンク)
岡谷荘三郎(塚原重五郎従者)(リンク)
日米修好通商条約・不平等条約を結んだ日本は本当に不利だったのか?(リンク)