|小栗上野介の足跡・（HP東善寺）●● 遣米使節 世界一周の旅
In the footsteps of Kozukenosuke Oguri, (HP Tozenji Temple) ●● Envoy to the U.S.: A journey around the world
Mission to the United States
A Journey Around the World
遣米使節の行程 パナマで株式会社を理解 アメリカで ワシントン海軍造船所見学・人物名 帰路につく 帰国した小栗の言葉 咸臨丸・三つの虚構
Table of Contents
Itinerary of the Mission to the U.S. Understanding how a stock company works, in Panama In the United States Returning to Japan Oguri's Words on His Return The Kanrin Maru and Three Fictions
On this page:
・ JC is the Japanese calendar.
・ WC is the Western calendar.
・ There was a leap month in Japan in 1860.
■ Itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the United States
In 1860, the first year of the Man'en Era, the mission took nine months to travel around the world, the first Japanese to do so on purpose, and returned to Japan.
安政７年（三月十九日から万延元） 品川沖出港一月十八日ー【ポウハタン号で】太平洋―ハワイー三月八日サンフランシスコーパナマー【ロアノウク号で】カリブ海―閏（うるう）三月二十四日ワシントン着ーニューヨーク五月十二日（6月30日・土）ー【ナイアガラ号で】大西洋―ロアンダ（アンゴラ）−バタビア（インドネシア)ー香港ー万延元年九月二十八日 横浜帰着 (東回り世界一周でした)
|Chart of their voyage around the globe
The vertical blue line is the center is the date line.
The red line and the green line are the courses of the delegation.
The black line is the route of the Kanrin Maru, which accompanied the mission to San Francisco in a training voyage.
■ The Course of the Mission They traveled around the world on three U.S. warships. Ref. "Three Ships of the U.S. Mission."lack line is the
|<On board the USS Powhatan>
Departed from Shinagawa, Edo (Tokyo) on WC February 9, 1860 (JC Jan. 18 of Ansei 7, which became the first year of Man'en from March 19) - Pacific Ocean - Hawaii - Arrived at San Francisco on WC March 29, 1860 (JC March 8 of Ansei 7) - Panama - (crossed the Isthmus of Panama by train) - Caribbean Sea
<On board the USS Roanoke>
Caribbean Sea - Arrived at Washington on WC May 14, 1860 (JC leap March 24 of Man'en 1) - (took train to Baltimore and Philadelphia and arrived at New York by a steamboat on WC June 16, 1860 (JC April 27 of Man'en 1).
<On board the USS Niagara>
Departed from New York on WC July 1, 1860 (JC May 13 of Man'en 1) - Atlantic Ocean - Luanda (Angola) - Batavia (Indonesia) - Hong Kong - Arrived back to Japan (Yokohama) on WC November 10, 1860 (JC September 28 of Man'en 1).
(It was an eastbound round-the-world voyage.)
■ In history education after the Meiji era, the itinerary and achievements of the mission to the U.S. have been hidden and replaced by the "crossing of the Pacific Ocean by the Kanrin Maru."
| ■ Mission to the United States
The three envoys were Buzennokami Shinmi, the sinior envoy, Awajinokami Muragaki, the deputy envoy, and Bungonokami Oguri (later become Kozukenosuke Oguri), the censor, each with nine attendants, and there were a total of 77 people in the mission including all the attendants and followers. One of Oguri's followeres, Toshichi Sato, was the village master of Gonda village and the first farmer to circumnavigate the globe.
On WC May 25, 1860 (JC April４ of Man'en 1), they visited the Washington Naval Shipyard. They took a commemorative photo. It was not just a shipbuilding facility. In addition to shipbuilding, it was a comprehensive factory where cannons, rifles, shells, bullets, ropes, and canvas were made one after another, all powered by steam engines.
Oguri's experience at the Washington Naval Shipyard was later utilized in the construction of the Yokosuka Shipyard, the site of Japan's industrial revolution.
Drawing: Slaves forced to carry loads.
("Kobeiki" by Tetsuta Kimura, a follower of Tadamasa Oguri)
■ When they returned to Japan, they found:
A nation of expulsion of foreigners:
On WJ March 24, 1860 (JC March 3 of Ansei 7), six days before their arrival in San Francisco, Naosuke Ii, the grand elder in the Tokugawa shogunate responsible for dispatching the mission, was assassinated at Sakuradamon Gate of the Edo Castle. The country was in the grip of an insanity that was driven by a fever for expulsion of foreigners, a desire to blame foreigners for every epidemic, fire, and earthquake, and a desire to kill anyone who was a follower of aliens.
In his book, "Meiji, a Nation," author Ryotaro Shiba wrote that while 176 people, including 77 members of the mission to the United States and 99 members of the Kanrin Maru mission, saw the latest American culture, most of them kept their mouths shut and did not speak about it after returning to Japan. However, three of them, Kozukenosuke Oguri, Yukichi Fukuzawa, and Kaishu Katsu, left behind work that would be utilized in the modernization of Japan. Shiba further wrote, "Kozukenosuke Oguri can be called the father of the Meiji era."
Foreign countries should be taken as a model
(words of Tadamasa Oguri)
When the mission returned to Japan, people in Japan were in the midst of a heated debate over the need for national seclusion and the expulsion of foreigners, and many members of the mission were reluctant to talk about foreign affairs. However, Tadamasa Oguri was the only one who did not shy away from talking about the superiority of American civilization. "In politics, armaments, commerce, and manufacturing, we must follow the example of foreign countries and improve our own," he said, surprising and upsetting the shogunate ministers.
(The section of "Kozukenosuke Oguri" in “The Political Figures at the End of the Edo Period” by Gen’ichiro Fukuchi, 1903 or Meiji 33)
１６１３(慶長１８)年、伊達政宗の正使として支倉常長が サン・ファン・バウティスタ号で太平洋を横断し、メキシコからスペイン〜ローマに至り再び太平洋を横断して帰 国している。
帰国 にあたって木村は「心配だから」とまた米人船員４人を頼みコック１人で計５人に乗ってもらっ てサンフランシスコから帰途についた。
帰国後、勝海舟は｢外国人の手はすこしも借らな いでアメリカへ行った」(『氷川清話』)として、ブルック大尉に世話になったことはいっさい語っていない。 氷川清話には「アメリカ人が・・・船底の掃除やペンキの塗り替えなどをすっかりしてくれた｣と、いかにも初の太平洋横断に感激したアメリカ人がやってくれたように語っているが､船の修理の手配やさらに費用をすべてアメリカ政府の負担とすることまで､計らってくれたのはブルック大尉である。
咸臨丸はパウハタン号の使節一行の護衛船 という名目で派遣され、軍艦奉行木村攝津守喜毅が責任者。勝海舟は教授方取扱という艦長 より下の役。その他にアメリカのブルック大尉以下１０人の米人船員が頼まれて乗り組んで いた。
ブルックらは横浜付近を測量中に台風で測量船フェニモア・クーパー号が壊れ、帰国しようと横浜に滞在していたので木村が頼んだ。「俺たち日本人だ けで大丈夫」と反対した勝海舟は「航海中船酔いが激しく、ほとんど船室で寝たきりだった 」とブルック大尉の「咸臨丸日記」に、そのときの様子が詳しく書かれ、ニューヨークタイムズ(４月１７日号)にも報じられている。
| ■ The Kanrin Maru and Three Fictions
Fiction 1: "The First Japanese to Cross the Pacific Ocean" ... In fact, the first crossing of the Pacific was made by a different Japanese on a different ship.
In 1610, Shosuke Tanaka, a merchant from Kyoto, traveled to Mexico on the order of Ieyasu Tokugawa and came back to Japan in 1611. It was 250 years before the Kanrin Maru.
Also, in 1613, Tsunenaga Hasekura, the official envoy of Masamune Date, crossed the Pacific Ocean on the San Juan Bautista, sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Mexico to Spain and Rome, and then crossed the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans again to return home. It was 247 years before the Kanrin Maru.
Kaishu Katsu said that it was the first crossing of the Pacific Ocean as a warship, but since the Meiji era (1868-1912), the word "warship" has been omitted from the text because of Japanese people's sense of national prestige. See "Japanese people with the 'Kanrin Maru disease'."
Fiction 2: "Sailing with the Japanese alone" ... In fact, the ship was maneuvered by American sailors during the voyage, especially in major storms.
The ship encountered storms in the North Pacific Ocean and most of the Japanese became seasick, so the American sailors took control of the ship and continued the voyage. The only Japanese who were able to work were John Manjiro and a few others. For the return voyage to Japan, Settsunokami Kimura who worried about the voyage had five Americans, namely four sailors and a cook, board the ship and they sailed back from San Francisco with the help of the Americans.
After returning to Japan, Kaishu Katsu said, "We went to the U.S. without any help from foreigners," and he never mentioned that they were taken care of by Captain Brooke and some Americans ("Hikawa Seiwa"). However, it was Captain Brooke who arranged for the ship to be repaired and for all the expenses to be borne by the U.S. government.
Even today, there are scholars who write that "the Americans wanted to return home, so we gave them a ride." There are some Japanese who flatter themselves too much.
Fiction 3: "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura and Kaishu Katsu are envoys to the U.S."... In fact, neither Kimura nor Katsu were appointed as envoys to the U.S.
They departed from Uraga on WC February 3, 1860 (JC January 12 of Ansei 7), arrived in San Francisco on WC March 18, 1860 (JC February 26 of Ansei 7), departed from San Francisco on WC April 8, 1860 (JC March 18 of Man'en 1), called at Hawaii and arrived in Uraga on WC June 26, 1860 (JC May 5 of Man'en 1).
In fact, Kaishu Katsu was down with seasickness through the voyage.
The Kanrin Maru was dispatched to escort the mission of the USS Powhatan, and the warship magistrate Settsunokami Kimura was in charge. Kaishu Katsu served in a subordinate role to the captain Kimura in the name of professor. In addition, Captain Brooke and ten other American sailors were on board at the request of Kimura.
In August 1959, Brook and his crew were surveying near Yokohama on board their survey ship, the Fenimore Cooper, but the ship was destroyed by a typhoon on August 23. When they were staying in Yokohama to return to the U.S., Kimura asked them to board the Kanrin Maru.
Kaishu Katsu opposed the boarding of Captain Brooke and others, saying, "We Japanese are all right." However, Katsu was "so seasick during the voyage that he was almost bedridden in his cabin," according to Captain Brooke's "Kanrin Maru Diary," which was reported in the New York Times (April 17, 1860).
Brooke, however, only reported to the envoys who arrived in San Francisco 12 days later that "Kaishu Katsu did well. He was a good man." I can say that Brooke was such a good man, a man of the sea.
* This historical fact was first made public when Brooke's languid diary was published in the "Historical Collection of Japanese Mission to the United States" (Kazama Shobo) in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the mission to the United States (until then, it had only been written about a little in the New York Times and other publications, so it did not spread). Half a century has passed since then, and the story is now well established. It means that it took half a century for a modest history to be set straight.
■ Why did the Kanrin Maru and Kaishu Katsu become famous in Japan? For the answer to the question, see "The myth of the Kanrin Maru."
■ A book was published by Keio University Press, claiming in a pamphlet that "Tomomi Iwakura's Mission to the United States and Europe" (from 1871 to 1873) was the first Japanese to travel around the world. We can say that the negative results of historical education that has hidden the achievements of the U.S. mission and denied the politics of the shogunate since the Meiji era are manifested in this way.
Please refer to "The Iwakura Mission to the United States and Europe" (link). (October 2006)
| Reading this page, you are eligible for membership of
the Association for Removing the Kanrin Maru from School Textbooks.
Member's responsibility: Advocate removing the picture of the Kanrin Maru, which is falsely used to explain the Japanese mission to the U.S., from high schools’ history textbooks and supplementary readers, and putting a picture of the mission's visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard in its place.
Member's privilege: You can reveal your knowledge such as "Kaishu Katsu was not an envoy to the U.S.," "Kaishu Katsu returned from San Francisco," "The mission to the U.S. did not board the Kanrin Maru," "The construction of the Yokosuka shipyard was conceived from Kozukenosuke Oguri's visit to the Washington Naval Shipyard," etc.
US cities the Japanese delegation visited in 1860: Washington
US cities the Japanese delegation visited in 1860: Philadelphia
Brochure "Three Ships That Carried the First Japanese Embassy to the United States Around the World"
■Bridge of Hope （English) … 小栗上野介の業績を紹介するＪＥＷＬ発行の書籍
ＪＥＷＬ（Japanese Executive Women's League） in Los Angeles introduces the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they published.
|■ Journey Around the World: The mission to the United States and the first Japanese to travel around the world, not taught in schools started by the Meiji government.
■ Itinerary of the Japanese Mission to the United States: The Itinerary of the first Japanese to go around the world
■ Visiting the course of the mission to U.S. (Hawaii): It also became a trip to learn the history of the fall of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
■ Visiting the course of the mission to U.S. (Washington DC): The main gate of the naval shipyard still existed.
■ Visiting the course of the mission to U.S. (Philadelphiai)
■ Visiting the course of the mission to U.S. (New York): Bypassing the Broadway on the way ...
■ Leaflet in Japanese and English, "Three ships for the mission to the U.S.": We made the leaflet to advocate removing the Kanrin Maru from school textbooks.
■ Bridge of Hope (English) ... JEWEL (Japanese Executive Women's League） in Los Angeles praises the achievements of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri in the book they published.
■ President's medals: Gold, silver, and bronze medals were presented to the envoys and all the followers.
■ Tadamasa Oguri's Currency Negotiations: The currency experiments that made Oguri say "No" in Philadelphia
■ Toshichi Sato, a village master who traveled around the world: Gonda village master traveled around the world as a follower of Kozukenosuke Tadamasa Oguri
■ Sadayu Tamamushi: The world that a Sendai clan samurai saw was fresh.
■ Oguri's Followers on the Mission to America: Nine Followers of Tadamasa Oguri
■ Miyoshi Gonzo, a follower of Tadamasa Oguri in the mission to the U.S.: He was from Shimane prefecture.
■ Achievements of the Japanese mission to the U.S.: Oguri who brought back a screw nail
■ Reading the "Detailed Drawing of Yokosuka"： We can read from the drawing that Yokosuka was the place of the Industrial Revolution in Japan.
＜Regarding The Kanrin Maru＞
■ False theories that "Settsunokami Yoshitake Kimura was a deputy envoy" and that "the ship on which the deputy envoy boarded was the Kanrin Maru." have been widespread recently. Where are the roots of them?
■ Captain Brooke: The Kanrin Maru did not sink thanks to Brooke and John Manjiro.
■ Japanese people with the "Kanrin Maru disease": A syndrome that they feel uncomfortable unless they mention the Kanrin Maru and Kaishu Katsu in every occasion
■ The Kanrin Maru myth created by Shushin textbooks: A fiction taught by national textbooks
■ The Japanese envoys to the U.S. decided to use the Hinomaru as the national flag: They decided to use the Hinomaru as the national flag of Japan, which was originally a ship's seal.
■ Tommy Polka: Music of Onojiro Tateishi, a boy interpreter who became very popular in the U.S.
■ Mission to the U.S. and American Dairy Farming: The first Japanese to eat ice cream
■ Izu Shimoda, the town of the USS Powhatan
■ A letter of thanks to Mr. Hideyuki Okazaki, a model sailing ship artist: Thanks to him, we have three ships of the mission to the U.S.
| ◇ List of the Japanese Envoys to the United States in 1860 (Link)
◇ Sozaburo Okanoya (Follower of Jugoro Tsukahara of Tatebayashi Domain) (Link)